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Sodium butyrate: what it is, what it helps, side effects, effects

The whole truth about sodium butyrate: what the research says and what we know for sure about it.

Emilia Moskal - AuthorAuthorEmilia Moskal
Emilia Moskal - Author
AuthorEmilia Moskal
Natu.Care Editor

Emilia Moskal specialises in medical and psychological texts, including content for medical entities. She is a fan of simple language and reader-friendly communication. At Natu.Care, she writes educational articles.

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Ilona Bush - Reviewed byReviewed byIlona Bush
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Ilona Bush - Reviewed by
Reviewed byIlona Bush
Master of Pharmacy

Ilona Krzak obtained her Master of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of Wrocław. She did her internship in a hospital pharmacy and in the pharmaceutical industry. She is currently working in the profession and also runs an educational profile on Instagram: @pani_z_apteki

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Nina Wawryszuk - Fact-checkingFact-checkingNina Wawryszuk
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Sodium butyrate: what it is, what it helps, side effects, effects
29 April, 2024
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When you think of fermentation, pickles or dairy products may appear before your eyes. You'll picture the inside of a fridge rather than... your intestines. And yet!

There are many complex and amazing processes taking place in the body. One of these is the fermentation of fibre in the intestines. This is what produces sodium butyrate - a substance whose popularity continues to grow in the dietary supplement market.

For the time being, science shows that sodium butyrate is the most important substance in the body.

For the time being, science shows us rather limited evidence of its effects, having mainly animal and in vitro studies. However, there is no denying that the results of some of these are very optimistic.

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From this article you will learn:

  • What sodium butyrate is and how it is formed.
  • What is sodium butyrate?
  • What ailments it can help you with.
  • .
  • Whether you need to take a dietary supplement to supply it to your body.
  • How to take it.
  • How to use sodium butyrate and whether it has any contraindications.
  • How to use sodium butyrate and whether it has any contraindications.

See also:

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What is sodium butyrate?

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Sodium butyrate (also called butyric acid, or more accurately sodium salt of butyric acid) is a short chain fatty acid ( short chain fatty acids - SCFA) that is naturally produced in your gut. It is produced by probiotic bacteria during the breakdown of fibre (its fermentation). Sodium butyrate is therefore one of the metabolic products of probioticsand.

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The ability to produce butyrate is possessed by certain bacterial families belonging to the order Clostridiales (Firmicutes), Lachnospiraceae (Coprococcus), Eubacterium, Anaerostipes and Roseburia, Ruminococcaceae (Faecalibacterium and Subdoligranulum) and Erysipelotrichaceae (Holdemanella).
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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In order to digest certain types of fibre (such as GOS - galactooligosaccharides or FOS - fructooligosaccharides), they need to reach the gut and be broken down by the bacteria of the microbiota. The products resulting from this process are short-chain fatty acids, such asand:

  • acetate (60%),
  • .
  • propionate (20%),
  • .
  • butyrate (20%),
  • .
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A diet devoid of fibre leads to cognitive impairment with age by altering the gut microflora-hippocampus axis, which is pathologically different from normal brain ageing. Increasing fibre intake is a dietary strategy to reduce the risk of developing diet-related cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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"Degradation of dietary fibre by the intestinal microflora results in the formation of organic acids, gases and large amounts of SCFAs. This is made possible by the production by bacteria of unique digestive enzymes that cannot be produced by mammals.

Substrates for bacterial fermentation include indigestible carbohydrates derived from dietary fibre such as polysaccharide plant cell walls, resistant starch, soluble oligosaccharides and endogenous products such as mucin," adds pharmacist.

All metabolites are needed in your body, but it is butyrate that has recently gained huge popularity among manufacturers of health-promoting dietary supplements. Is it rightly so? Well, most of the studies on this compound have been conducted in vitro. As for those involving humans - there aren't many so far.

What we know for sure about sodium butyrate is that it is the main source of energy for colon epithelial cells, or colonocytesand. It is estimated to provide as much as 70% of their energy requirements, thus being an essential ingredient to ensure their proper functioning .

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Unmetabolised butyrate travels to the portal system of the liver, where it provides a source of energy for hepatocytes, and from there is transported to peripheral tissues and the systemic circulation.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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In addition, scientists are currently studying the effects of sodium butyrate on the immune system and reducing inflammation in the body, as well as its insulin-regulating propertiesand.

Interesting facts

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Sodium butyrate can also be found in some foods, such as butter (yes, the coincidence of the names is no coincidence) - it contains about 3-4 g of butyrate in 100 g. You can also supply it through supplementation.

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In addition to bacterial fermentation, SCFAs can also be found in vegetable oils and animal fats. Butter contains 3-4% butyrate in the form of tributyrin.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Probiotic

Panaseus Bowel Formula

Panaseus Bowel Formula
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  • Active ingredients: L-glutamine, fennel seed extract, marigold flower extract, Indian frankincense bark resin extract, incense, inulin, rhizome extract curcuma, sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria 
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Using Panaseus Digestive Formula can help improve intestinal health by supporting the intestinal barrier, reducing inflammation, protecting against damage and restoring healthy intestinal microflora.

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Pros and cons

Using Panaseus Digestive Formula can help improve intestinal health by supporting the intestinal barrier, reducing inflammation, protecting against damage and restoring healthy intestinal microflora.

Experience a rós difference in gut function with plant extracts, amino acids and probiotic bacteria.

Additional information

Using Panaseus Digestive Formula can help improve intestinal health by supporting the intestinal barrier, reducing inflammation, protecting against damage and restoring healthy intestinal microflora.

Experience a rós difference in gut function with plant extracts, amino acids and probiotic bacteria.

.

How does sodium butyrate work?

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The mechanism of action of sodium butyrate at the biochemical level is not yet well understood. Research suggests that this compound may affectand:

  • immune response of the body,
  • .
  • cell differentiation,
  • .
  • apoptosis, i.e. death of old and used cells,
  • .
  • strengthening the protective barrier in the gut,
  • .
  • providing energy for intestinal epithelial cells,
  • .
  • expansion of skeletal muscles;
  • .

What does sodium butyrate help with?

Sodium butyrate is mainly used as a support for various gastric complaints. It has a protective and regenerative effect on the digestive system. However, some studies show that this metabolite can do much more for your body.

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Butyrate-producing probiotic bacteria, such as Roseburia, produce metabolites with anti-cancer effects, such as shikimic acid and a precursor to conjugated linoleic acid.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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A 2020 study suggests that sodium butyrate can inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria that can lead to septic shockand. In contrast, an in vitro study of Crohn's disease showed that sodium butyrate can inhibit inflammatory responses .

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Butyrate-producing bacteria, such as E. Hallii, produce reuterin, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that has been shown to inhibit yeast growth.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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In contrast, Polish researchers take a different view. A 2022 study involving children and adolescents with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease did not confirm the efficacy of sodium butyrate as an adjunctive therapyand. Results from studies in adults with similar conditions are not consistentand.

One possible reason for the discrepancy in results is the lack of an agreed appropriate dose of sodium butyrate to be taken for it to be effectiveand.

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In vitro and in vivo studies have also shown that butyrate-producing bacteria are involved in the biosynthesis of vitamins, especially B vitamin complexes. For example, Eubacterium hallii produces vitamin B12, which is used in symbiosis by Akkermansia to produce propionate.
Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Sodium butyrate for reflux

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I have not found a single scientific paper that examines the effects of sodium butyrate on reflux. Despite this, it seems that maintaining a healthy gut can help with all gastrointestinal conditions. Sodium butyrate can regenerate damaged epithelium and improve intestinal function, thereby positively affecting the entire digestive processand.

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SCFAs play one of their main roles by maintaining an environment favourable to commensal bacteria and controlling the growth of pathogens.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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But beware, gastric reflux can also be a symptom of excessive production of sodium butyrate by probiotic bacteria. It is therefore advisable to seek medical advice before starting supplementation with this metabolite.

Sodium butyrate for the gut

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Sodium butyrate has a significant effect on your intestines. It helps to regenerate their cells and gives them energy to work properly. It also supports the production of mucus, which lining your intestines and is an important component of their protective barrier. In this way, it supports the prevention of harmful substances and pathogens from entering the bloodstreamand.

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In inflammatory bowel disease ( inflammatory bowel disease - IBD editor's note), butyrate-producing bacteria play an important role as they increase mucus production to strengthen the intestinal mucosal barrier and regulate butyrate the expression of butyrate-mediated tight junction proteins to reduce the permeation of harmful substances through the intestines.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Also, animal studies suggest that sodium butyrate may help alleviate symptoms of, for example, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), such as abdominal pain or irregular bowel movementsand.

There is an interesting review of research in 2022, the results of which suggest that sodium butyrate may support the treatment of colorectal cancer and induce cancer cell death. It may also improve the outcome of radiotherapy, and protect mucous membranes from degradation resulting from chemotherapyand.

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Butyrate plays a dual role in epithelial cell metabolism: it supports healthy cells as an energy source and inhibits the expansion of cancer cells. This is known as the 'butyrate paradox' or the Warburg effect. SCFAs initiate programmed tumour cell death, so it is hypothesised that certain strains of bacteria may exhibit anti-cancer effects.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Despite these optimistic conclusions, I want to emphasise that these are only preliminary studies and in no way can sodium butyrate be considered a cure for cancer.

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Butyrate is used by colonocytes to produce energy, which increases oxygen consumption by the epithelium. As a result, the presence of butyrate-producing bacteria helps to maintain an anaerobic environment in the gut, which further prevents the colonisation of opportunistic aerobic pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Sodium butyrate for constipation and bloating

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Sodium butyrate can also act on problems with bloating and constipation. It improves intestinal peristalsis, which facilitates the bowel movement process. In addition, it helps to regulate gas accumulation in the intestines, resulting in a reduction in bloatingand.

Sodium butyrate for weight loss

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If you are looking for weight loss support, you may have come across information that sodium butyrate would be a valuable addition to your diet. The research in this regard is contradictory. Certainly, sodium butyrate may support healthy gut flora and help improve digestion and nutrient absorptionand.

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SCFAs exert effects on the secretion of hormones that regulate food intake, insulin secretion and gut function in response to various stimuli. This includes glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, whose analogues in the form of drugs are now so much in demand.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Some studies suggest that it may also contribute to regulating metabolism by reducing glucose and lipid production in the liverand. Interestingly, in malnourished individuals, sodium butyrate may instead result in weight gain due to improved nutrient absorption .

So is sodium butyrate a miracle pill for a slim waistline? Some studies say otherwise.

A 2013 research paper reported higher levels of sodium butyrate in obese people with high blood pressure and metabolic disorders, compared to normal weight peopleand. In contrast, a 2018 study found that taking sodium butyrate may increase body fat productionand.

See also:

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Sodium butyrate for thyroid disease

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Although sodium butyrate does not directly affect the function thyroid, many of the diseases of this organ cause unpleasant gastrointestinal complaints. By regenerating the gut, strengthening its protective and immune functions, and influencing the regulation of metabolism, sodium butyrate may help to combat these symptomsand.

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If you are ill...

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It doesn't matter what reason you want to take sodium butyrate - if you suffer from any illness, it's worth consulting your doctor before starting supplementation (or even before drastically changing your diet). There are instances where sodium butyrate may harm you. You will read more about this in the section "Sodium butyrate - contraindications".

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In many medical conditions, studies show a reduced abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria (i.e. butyric acid, among other things) or a reduced genomic potential to produce short-chain fatty acids. These include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, liver cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease and atherosclerosis.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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How to use sodium butyrate?

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It is best to supplement sodium butyrate with food. You can do this through two groups of foods: foods that contain it, and those that will support its production in the gutand.

The first group includes mainly milk-processing products (and the fattiest ones), so it is not recommended to consume them in excessive quantities. The second group of products will include sources of soluble fibre (GOS and FOS), which is fermented by prebiotic bacteria, resulting in sodium butyrate. These can already be eaten in much larger quantities.

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Foods containing sodium butyrate

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Foods that increase the synthesis of sodium butyrate in the intestines

  • Butter
  • Cheese (e.g. parmesan, grana padano, gouda)
  • .
  • Milk (cow, goat and sheep)
  • .
  • Ghee (a type of clarified butter)
  • .
  • Apples
  • Pears
  • Morels
  • Bananas
  • Kiwis
  • Rubberries
  • Oranges
  • Pulses
  • .
  • Cooked, cold potatoes
  • Archives
  • Asparagus
  • Broccoli
  • Carrots
  • Clove
  • Green peas

Sodium butyrate: dosage

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The appropriate daily dose of sodium butyrate has not been established. The only thing that can be used to try to determine what dose of this ingredient would be appropriate is... the portions given to participants in scientific studies.

On this basis, a portion 150-300 mg of sodium butyrate per day appears to be safe and effectiveand.

Sodium butyrate: before or after eating?

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In most cases, sodium butyrate is taken during or after a meal. However, it is always advisable to check the recommendations of the manufacturer of a particular preparation. Some recommend supplementing sodium butyrate with breakfast, so that you can enjoy its effects on the gut throughout the day. Even so, it seems that the time of taking this compound does not matter much.

Sodium butyrate - contraindications

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Sodium butyrate is considered a safe ingredient, however, there are a few situations where you should be extra carefuland:

  • Intolerances and allergies: If you are allergic to sodium butyrate or any of the ingredients in the dietary supplement, you should not take it. Allergy symptoms may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the face, lips, tongue and throat.
  • .
  • Kidney Diseases: Sodium butyrate is excreted from the body through the kidneys, so if you have kidney problems, taking this supplement may be risky for you.
  • .
  • Heart diseases: Sodium butyrate can affect sodium levels in the body, which can be dangerous for people with heart disease.
  • Some intestinal diseases: Although sodium butyrate is mainly used to improve intestinal function, it is not recommended for people who need to restrict fibre in their diet.
  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding: The safety of using sodium butyrate during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not well studied. Therefore, it is not indicated for women who are expecting a baby and those who are lactating.
  • .
  • Use of other medicines: Sodium butyrate may interact with some medicines. Therefore, before starting to use sodium butyrate, if you are already taking any medicines, advise a specialist.
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Important

Remember, always consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking any supplement, including sodium butyrate.

Sodium butyrate - side effects

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Sodium butyrate, despite its benefits, may cause some side effects. Remember that every body reacts differently, so you don't have to experience the symptoms listed at all.

The most common side effects of taking sodium butyrate include gastrointestinal distress. Taking sodium butyrate can cause discomforts such asand:

  • increased bowel function,
  • .
  • nausea,
  • .
  • abdominal pain,
  • .
  • diarrhoea,
  • .

Very often gastrointestinal symptoms pass after a few days of use or may be a sign that you are taking too much. If symptoms are bothersome or worsen, discontinue the supplement and consult your doctor.

Take the supplement as soon as possible.

Allergic reactions may also occur when taking sodium butyrate. A rash, hoarseness, swelling, or even difficulty breathing should immediately prompt you to stop supplementation and contact your doctor.

Some people may also experience allergic reactions.

Some people may also experience changes in appetite - both increased and decreasedand.

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Remember that if you experience any worrying symptoms after taking sodium butyrate, you should consult your doctor.

See also:

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Summary

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  • Sodium butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid that is a metabolic product of probiotic bacteria.
  • Sodium butyrate is a fatty acid that is a short-chain fatty acid that is a metabolic product of probiotic bacteria.
  • It is formed during the fermentation of fibre (prebiotics) in the large intestine.
  • .
  • Sodium butyrate has intestinal regenerative properties and is the main source of energy for the cells of its epithelium.
  • This compound may strengthen the intestinal barrier, contribute to mucus production and improve intestinal function.
  • Preliminary research suggests that sodium butyrate may also influence immune function and metabolism, including insulin metabolism.
  • Sodium butyrate is best obtained indirectly - by eating foods rich in fibre, which, when fermented, contributes to the compound.
  • The specific daily intake of sodium butyrate has not been established, but scientific sources suggest an intake of 150 to 300 mg per day.
  • Sodium butyrate is considered a safe dietary supplement, but may cause allergic reactions in some people. It should also be avoided by people with kidney disease, heart disease, women expecting a baby and those who should limit fibre in their diet.

FAQ

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. Is sodium butyrate healthy?.

Sodium butyrate is the sodium salt of butyric acid. It is an ingredient that occurs naturally in our bodies, particularly in the gut, and has many benefits for health. First and foremost, it supports proper bowel function. In addition, sodium butyrate can help control blood sugar levels. Studies show that it can increase insulin sensitivity and even reduce inflammation in the body.

However, like anything else, sodium butyrate should be consumed in moderation. Excessive doses can lead to undesirable side effects such as diarrhoea or bloating. Therefore, always use it as directed.

. Is sodium butyrate a probiotic?.

No, sodium butyrate is not a probiotic. Probiotics are specific strains of beneficial bacteria that inhabit your intestines. Sodium butyrate is a product of their metabolism, which is produced when microorganisms in the colon ferment undigested fibre residues. Sodium butyrate is therefore produced by probiotic bacteria.

. When not to use sodium butyrate?.

People who are allergic to any ingredient in the preparation should refrain from taking sodium butyrate. This compound may not be recommended for people with kidney or cardiovascular disease. There is also a lack of studies confirming the safety of sodium butyrate for pregnant and breastfeeding women, so it is not recommended for use during this period.

Remember that you can also influence the synthesis of sodium butyrate in the body by eating foods rich in fibre, such as apples, pears, raspberries, asparagus and green-leafed vegetables.

. When is it worth taking sodium butyrate?.

It is worth considering taking sodium butyrate if you suffer from digestive complaints. This compound can improve digestive comfort and help you to combat bloating, constipation, gas and belching.

Additionally, research suggests that sodium butyrate may be helpful for conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and stomach ulcers. However, remember to consult your doctor for supplementation in such cases. Sodium butyrate may improve the intestinal barrier and promote epithelial cell regeneration, which is crucial for intestinal health.

. How to take sodium butyrate?.

Take sodium butyrate as recommended by your doctor or the manufacturer of the specific formulation. For example, you may take a capsule at breakfast or lunch. Do not exceed the recommended dose, as this can lead to undesirable side effects. Sodium butyrate is an ingredient that helps to maintain health intestinal health, so correct dosage is key.

. Where does sodium butyrate occur?.

Sodium butyrate is naturally produced in the large intestine, but is also found in some foods, especially butter and ripened cheeses such as Parmesan. It is also used as a preservative ingredient in the food industry, especially in baked goods and cured meats, where it acts as a natural pH regulator and prevents mould growth.

You will also find it in cosmetics and personal care products such as soaps and shampoos, where it acts as an emulsifier and conditioning ingredient. In medicine, sodium butyrate is an ingredient in medicines for constipation.

. How long to use sodium butyrate?.

Use sodium butyrate as recommended by your doctor or pharmacist. The duration of treatment can range from a few weeks to several months. The length of use depends on the condition health and the body's response. Adherence to the recommendations is key to the effectiveness of the therapy. Sodium butyrate is used for digestive problems and inflammatory bowel conditions, so regular use helps to control symptoms.

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Sources

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Immune Network :: (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2023, from https://immunenetwork.org/DOIx.php?id=10.4110/in.2020.20.e15

Amiri, P., Hosseini, S. A., Roshanravan, N., Saghafi-Asl, M., & Tootoonchian, M. (2023). The effects of sodium butyrate supplementation on the expression levels of PGC-1α, PPARα, and UCP-1 genes, serum level of GLP-1, metabolic parameters, and anthropometric indices in obese individuals on weight loss diets: A study protocol for a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Trials24(1), 489. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-022-06891-9

Banasiewicz, T., Domagalska, D., Borycka-Kiciak, K., & Rydzewska, G. (2020). Determination of butyric acid dosage based on clinical and experimental studies - a literature review. Gastroenterology Review/Review of Gastroenterology15(2), 119-125. https://doi.org/10.5114/pg.2020.95556

Birt, D. F., Boylston, T., Hendrich, S., Jane, J.-L., Hollis, J., Li, L., McClelland, J., Moore, S., Phillips, G. J., Rowling, M., Schalinske, K., Scott, M. P., & Whitley, E. M. (2013). Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health. Advances in Nutrition4(6), 587-601. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.113.004325

Candido, E. P. M., Reeves, R., & Davie, J. R. (1978). Sodium butyrate inhibits histone deacetylation in cultured cells. Cell14(1), 105-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(78)90305-7

De la Cuesta-Zuluaga, J., Mueller, N. T., Álvarez-Quintero, R., Velásquez-Mejía, E. P., Sierra, J. A., Corrales-Agudelo, V., Carmona, J. A., Abad, J. M., & Escobar, J. S. (2019). Higher Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid Levels Are Associated with Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis, Obesity, Hypertension and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk Factors. Nutrients11(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010051

Effects of oral butyrate supplementation on inflammatory potential of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy and obese males | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2023, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-37246-7

Frontiers | Protective role of butyrate in obesity and diabetes: New insights. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2023, from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2022.1067647/full

Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka, K., Marano, L., Merola, E., Roviello, F., & Połom, K. (2022). Sodium butyrate in both prevention and supportive treatment of colorectal cancer. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology12. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2022.1023806

Lewandowski, K., Kaniewska, M., Karlowicz, K., Rosolowski, M., & Rydzewska, G. (2022). The effectiveness of microencapsulated sodium butyrate at reducing symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology Review/Review of Gastroenterology17(1), 28-34. https://doi.org/10.5114/pg.2021.112681

Liu, H., Wang, J., He, T., Becker, S., Zhang, G., Li, D., & Ma, X. (2018). Butyrate: A Double-Edged Sword for Health? Advances in Nutrition9(1), 21-29. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmx009

Sodium butyrate in the treatment of functional and inflammatory bowel disease | Practical Gastroenterology-Practitioner's Journal. (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2023, from https://gastroenterologia-praktyczna.pl/a4708/Maslan-sodu-w-leczeniu-chorob-czynnosciowych-i-zapalnych-jelit.html/

Miller, A. A., Kurschel, E., Osieka, R., & Schmidt, C. G. (1987). Clinical pharmacology of sodium butyrate in patients with acute leukemia. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology23(9), 1283-1287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5379(87)90109-X

Pietrzak, A., Banasiuk, M., Szczepanik, M., Borys-Iwanicka, A., Pytrus, T., Walkowiak, J., & Banaszkiewicz, A. (2022). Sodium Butyrate Effectiveness in Children and Adolescents with Newly Diagnosed Inflammatory Bowel Diseases-Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Trial. Nutrients14(16), Article 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163283

Säemann, M. D., Böhmig, G. A., Österreicher, C. H., Burtscher, H., Parolini, O., Diakos, C., Stöckl, J., Hörl, W. H., & Zlabinger, G. J. (2000). Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: Potent inhibition of IL-12 and up-regulation of IL-10 production. The FASEB Journal14(15), 2380-2382. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.00-0359fje

Segain, J.-P., Blétière, D. R. de la, Bourreille, A., Leray, V., Gervois, N., Rosales, C., Ferrier, L., Bonnet, C., Blottière, H. M., & Galmiche, J.-P. (2000). Butyrate inhibits inflammatory responses through NFκB inhibition: Implications for Crohn's disease. Gut47(3), 397-403. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.47.3.397

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