Protein - what it is, properties, requirement, function and role

Proteins build tissues, protect the body from pathogens and also regulate gene function.

Ludwig Jelonek - AuthorAuthorLudwig Jelonek
Ludwig Jelonek - Author
AuthorLudwig Jelonek
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Ludwik Jelonek is the author of more than 2,500 texts published on leading portals. His content has found its way into services such as Ostrovit and Kobieta Onet. At Natu.Care, Ludwik educates people in the most important area of life - health.

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Ilona Bush - Reviewed byReviewed byIlona Bush
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Ilona Bush - Reviewed by
Reviewed byIlona Bush
Master of Pharmacy

Ilona Krzak obtained her Master of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of Wrocław. She did her internship in a hospital pharmacy and in the pharmaceutical industry. She is currently working in the profession and also runs an educational profile on Instagram: @pani_z_apteki

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Protein - what it is, properties, requirement, function and role
17 March, 2024
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They have been found in space, make up approx. 20% of human body weight, and some types are stronger than steel. They are proteins. You consume them every day, for example at Sunday lunch with pork loin (but sooner with chicken breast).

These organic compounds are essential for the body to function properly. Therefore, together with Ilona Krzak, M.Sc. in Pharmacy, we will present the most important information about them.

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From this article you will learn:

  • What proteins are, what they are made of and whether they are healthy.
  • .
  • What functions proteins perform and how much to eat per day.
  • What foods should you eat?
  • Which foods should be included in a high-protein diet.
  • .
  • What are the risks and manifestations of protein deficiency and excess.
  • What is the risk of protein deficiency and excess.
  • How to correctly supplement protein.
  • .

See also:

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What is protein?

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Protein is a large, complex organic compound made up of one or more chains called polypeptides. Each polypeptide chain is a continuous series of amino acids that are linked to each other by structures called peptide bondsand.

Proteins (proteins) are essential components of all living cells. They are essential for tissue growth and regeneration. The diversity of proteins in nature is due to the different combinations of amino acids. There are 20 main amino acids that can be combined in different sequences to form different proteinsand.

It is the structure of a protein that is responsible for its functions. Each protein is made up of one or more amino acid chains, which are organised in a specific way to perform selected tasks .

What are the types of proteins?

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There are many different types of proteins and each has its own unique functions. What are the most important types of proteins in the bodyand?

  • Enzymes. Proteins that catalyse (speed up) specific chemical reactions in the body. These compounds reduce the energy required to start a chemical process, which increases the speed of the process.
  • Proteins.
  • Structural proteins. Provide support and structure to cells and tissues. Examples include collagen and elastin, which are important components of skin and connective tissue structure.
  • Signalling proteins. They transmit signals between cells, allowing the coordination of various biological functions. Hormones, such as insulin, are signalling proteins.
  • Regulatory proteins. They help control various processes within cells, such as transcription and DNA replication. They can also regulate the function of other proteins.
  • Transport proteins. They support the movement of molecules to different locations in the body. Haemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen in the blood, is an example of a transport protein.
  • Proteins.
  • Motor proteins. Proteins that generate movement. They are crucial for muscle contraction and cell movement.
  • Defence proteins. They help protect the body from harmful microorganisms and substances. Antibodies are an example of defence proteins.
  • Proteins.
  • Storage proteins. They store important components that the body may need in the future. For example, ferritin is a storage protein of iron.

Remember that in the biological world, proteins show great diversity, so they also have many other specific roles.

What do proteins consist of?

Proteins are made up of one or more long chains of amino acids. Amino acids are small molecules that are linked together by peptide bonds. Each amino acid molecule consists of a central carbon atom to which is attached a hydrogen atom, an amine group (NH2), a carboxyl group (COOH) and one variable group, called the R groupand.

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Simple and complex proteins - what are the differences?

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Proteins can be divided into two main types: simple proteins and complex proteins.

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Simple proteins are constructed from amino acids only. Nevertheless, they differ in their type, number and the order in which they are arranged. But they contain no other chemical components apart from amino acidsand.

Complex proteins, in addition to amino acid chains, contain additional non-protein components called prosthetic groups. These groups can range from simple organic compounds to complex molecules, such as the haem in haemoglobinand.

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Is protein healthy?

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Yes, protein in the human body is an important component needed for its proper functioning. It is essential for building, repairing and coordinating the function of all cells in the body, including muscles, connective tissues, skin and hair. Protein is also important for the production of enzymes, hormones and antibodies, which are key to the body's proper functioningand.

Protein also helps to maintain a feeling of satiety after a meal, which can help with weight control. A number of studies have shown that a diet rich in protein can promote body fat loss, especially when combined with regular exercise .

What are the functions and roles of proteins in the body?

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Proteins play an important role in almost every biological process in the body. They are important for building, repairing and maintaining body structures, catalysing chemical reactions or transporting substances. They also have key functions in the coordination of biological processes, the body's defence against antibodies and the regulation of gene action. What properties do proteins have?

Tissue construction and repair

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Proteins are essential for the construction and repair of tissues in the human body. They regulate various biological functions, as well as forming tissue structures, repairing damage and promoting regeneration.

  • Builds muscle mass. Proteins provide essential amino acids, which the liver uses to create new muscle proteins. These new proteins contribute to muscle growth and repairand.
  • Tissue regeneration and repair. Proteins are key in wound healing and tissue regeneration processes. The body uses proteins produced by white blood cells to produce new cells that can replace damaged onesand.
  • .
  • Production of enzymes and hormones. Proteins play an important role in the production of biologically active molecules such as enzymes and hormones. These molecules regulate various functions in the body, including tissue growth and repairand.
  • .
  • Creation of antibodies. Proteins are essential for the production of antibodies that fight pathogens. These antibodies identify and neutralise pathogens that can damage tissuesand.
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The correct amount of protein in the body affects healthy muscle development and regeneration of damaged tissues.
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Marta Kaczorek.

Marta Kaczorekclinical nutritionist and personal trainer

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Catalysing chemical reactions

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Proteins - particularly enzymes - play an important role in catalysing (speeding up) chemical reactions in organisms. Without these proteins, many reactions would be too slow to keep an individual alive.

Enzymes achieve this by creating active sites that bind substrates (the molecules on which enzymes act) creating conditions that favour a chemical reactionand.

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The action of enzymes is also crucial to the proper functioning of all cells and tissues in the body. They play an essential role in many biological processes, such as food digestion, DNA synthesis, metabolism and even muscle contraction.

Ezymes are also essential for the proper functioning of all cells and tissues in the body.

Transport of substances

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Substance transport in the body is an essential aspect of maintaining homeostasis, and proteins play an essential role in this. They support both passive and active transport of substances.

Some proteins act as channels, allowing specific substances to move across the cell membrane. They are the kind of 'gates' that open and close to control the flow of substances inside and outside the cellsand.

Other proteins in the body act as transporters that specialise in moving specific substances across the cell membrane. Like channels, they can help substances to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, thereby regulating vital processesand.

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Other proteins act as lipid transporters, as they are responsible for moving fats around the body. These proteins enable the transport of lipoproteins in the blood, which is important for the proper functioning of many systems, including the cardiovascular system .

Finally, there are also proteins that act as receptors on the surface of cells. They bind substances, such as hormones, and carry this signal into the cell, starting a series of reactions that affect specific functions.

Coordination of biological processes

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Proteins are like conductors that coordinate many instruments biological processes in the body. They regulate metabolism, transmit signals between cells, help fight disease and control cell growth and development.

Process

Role of proteinsand

Regulation of metabolism

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Enzymes help "break down" food into useful components.

Cellular communication

Proteins on cell surfaces intercept signals and tell cells what to do.

Proteins on cell surfaces intercept signals and tell cells what to do.

Regulation of the immune response

Proteins help fight disease by producing antibodies.

Growth and differentiation of cells

Some proteins "tell" cells when to grow, divide and differentiate.

Some proteins "tell" cells when to grow, divide and differentiate.

The body's defences

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Proteins also protect the body against various threats. The immune system uses proteins to identify and fight pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, and to repair tissue damage.

  • Body formation. When the body encounters bacteria, viruses or other harmful substances, proteins in your immune system form antibodies. They are specifically 'designed' to match a particular harmful substance and be able to neutralise it . This allows the body to respond quickly and effectively to a variety of threatsand.
  • Inflammatory process. When your body is attacked by bacteria, proteins help to heal. They send a signal that increases blood circulation and the arrival of white blood cells to the site of injury or infection. This helps to inhibit its spread and speed up the healing processand.
  • Immune cell function. Proteins are important for the function of your immune cells. They help cells such as lymphocytes, or white blood cells, to recognise and fight off unwanted microorganisms. It is thanks to the proteins that these cells 'know' what foreign substances to attack and eliminateand.
  • .
  • Signalling pathways. Proteins within immune cells help pass signals from one part of the cell to another. This exchange of information helps immune cells respond quickly and effectively to pathogens. For example, if a pathogen is detected on the surface of an immune cell, proteins within that cell relay this information to various cellular structures, leading to the initiation of an immune responseand.
  • .
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Proteins are also numerous allergens that the body recognises as a foreign body and produces mediators of the inflammatory process. Examples include cow's milk proteins, chicken egg proteins or grass or tree pollen. People who are allergic after eating eggs, dairy products or being in a space where pollen is present may have symptoms of an allergic reaction.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Regulation of gene function

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Proteins are also responsible for controlling which genes in the cell are active and which are not. Regulation of gene function determines which proteins are produced by the cell at any given time. This process is important for the proper functioning of the body.

Some proteins are known as transcription factors. What does this mean? They attach to specific sites in your DNA and 'tell' the cell to start the process of reading a specific gene and producing the protein that this gene encodes. For example, when a cell needs more energy, transcription factors can 'turn on' the genes that encode the proteins needed for energy productionand.

It is also worth mentioning that proteins can also modify DNA and histone proteins (which help 'package' the DNA in the cell), which can change the way genes are read. For example, some modifications can block access to a gene, preventing it from being read, while others can 'unzip' a specific region of DNA, allowing easier access to genesand.

So proteins are extremely important to the silent symphony that takes place in every cell in the body. Thanks to them, cells are able to adapt their functions and respond to changing conditions by modifying which genes, are read and which are not.

What is the daily protein requirement in children and adults?

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You can estimate the daily protein requirement for an adult based on body weight and total kilocalorie intake.

The current recommendation for daily intake (RDA) of protein is 0.9 g per kg of body weight for the average Smith. This means that a person weighing 70 kg should consume approximately 56 g of protein per day.

How much protein per dayand?

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Body mass

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Daily protein intake

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50 kg

40 g

60 kg

48 g

70 kg

56 g

80 kg

64 g

90 kg

72 g

In turn, in terms of kilocalories consumed: It is recommended that between 10% and 35% of kilocalories come from protein. For a person on a standard 2,000 kilocalorie diet, this suggests an intake of approximately 50-175 g of protein per day.

How to calculate protein requirements

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Protein requirements vary according to a number of factors, such as age, gender, physical activity level and health status. The National Centre for Nutrition Education suggests the following intakes for specific groups of people.

How much protein per kilogram of body weightand?

  • Children aged 10-18 years: approx. 1 gram of protein per kg of body weight.
  • Protein per kg of body weight.
  • Adults (physically inactive) of normal body weight: approx. 0.9 grams of protein per kg of body weight.
  • An adult, physically active, engaged in performance sports: approx. 1.6-2.2 grams of protein per kg of body weight.
  • Adult, physically active, engaged in strength sports: about. 1.8-2.2 grams of protein per kg of body weight.
  • Pregnant women: 1st trimester approx. 1.1 g, 2nd trimester 1.2 g, 3rd trimester 1.2 g per kg body weight.
  • Breastfeeding women: 1.4 grams per kg of body weight.
  • People over 65 years of age: 1 gram, and in the case of malnutrition or chronic diseases 1.2-1.5 grams (or otherwise if so advised by a doctor).

To calculate the ideal daily dose of protein for yourself multiply your body weight with the recommended value per kg.

Example

If you are physically active, do strength sports and weigh 80 kg then your protein requirement is approximately 80 × 2=160 grams of protein per day.

Dietary sources of protein

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Protein is found in both animal and plant products. rich sources of protein include meat (chicken, beef, turkey), fish, eggs and dairy. Plant-based sources of protein, on the other hand, include seeds (flaxseed, chia), nuts, legumes (lentils, chickpeas, beans) and soy products such as tofu and tempeh. Whole grain cereals, such as brown rice and quinoa, are also good sources of protein. What else has plenty of protein?

Products high in protein - table

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Product

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Protein content protein per 100 gand

Chicken breast

27 g

Beef

26 g

Herring

23 g

Soy

18 g

Flaxseed

18 g

Chewnuts

18 g

Egg

12 g

Chickpeas

9 g

Lentils

9 g

Red beans

8.7 g

Rice quinoa

4.4 g

What fruits are rich in protein?

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Although fruit is not usually the main source of protein in the diet, some fruits offer higher amounts of this macronutrient. Guavas contain 2.6g of protein per 100g, while avocados and chestnuts provide around 2g for the same serving.

On the other hand, kiwano and pepper berries provide 1.6 g and 1.2 g of protein respectively. Dried fruits such as dates or prunesand are also valuable.

How much protein has ... a banana, an egg and a chicken breast?

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Banana, egg and chicken breast are great, average and not the best source of protein. Can you guess which term refers to which food?

The answer isand:

  • Banana. Typically, one medium-sized banana contains approximately 1.3g of protein.
  • An egg. One, large egg typically provides around 12g of protein.
  • Egg.
  • Chicken breast. 100 g of cooked chicken breast contains about 27 g of protein.

What meat has the most protein?

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The richest meat in terms of protein content is chicken. Raw chicken breast provides approximately 22-27 grams of protein per 100 grams.

Turkey proves to be equally valuable - there are 19-24 grams of protein in 100 grams of raw breast. This is especially important for those looking for healthier meat options - turkey is also a low-fat source of protein.

Turkey is also a good source of protein.

Another protein-rich meat is beef. Beef, depending on cut and preparation, contains around 26 grams of protein per 100 grams.

Beef is also a good source of protein.

What has a lot of protein and little fat?

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There are many foods that are high in protein but low in fat. The most popular of these are white poultry meat, fish or fat-free dairy. Equally good options are also eggs, legumes or lean red meat.

  • White poultry meat. White chicken or turkey meat is an excellent source of protein that is very low in fat, especially if you remove the skin.
  • White chicken or turkey meat is an excellent source of protein.
  • Lean red meat. Lean cuts of red meat can provide a lot of protein at a relatively low fat content.
  • Fat-free protein. Products such as cottage cheese, natural yogurt or skimmed milk are a good source of protein while being low in fat.
  • Fat-free protein.
  • Abs. These are an excellent source of protein. Although yolks are relatively high in fat, egg whites are almost free of it.
  • Pulses. Fasola, lentils, peas and soybeans are all excellent, low-fat sources of protein.

Protein deficiency

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Protein deficiency is a condition that occurs when your body lacks protein. Often it is the result of malnutrition, but it can also occur when your diet is low in protein, or when your body has trouble absorbing it from food.

For example, people with certain gastrointestinal or kidney conditions may have difficulty assimilating protein, leading to protein deficiency.

Causes

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Protein deficiency can be caused by a variety of factors, such as inadequate diet, health conditions, or complex socioeconomic conditions.

Cause of protein deficiency in the bodyand:

  • Inadequate diet. Following a low-protein or vegan diet without a proper balance of nutrients can lead to protein deficiency.
  • Protein deficiency.
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as celiac disease or Crohn's disease, can impede protein absorption. More often than not, these are complex diseases that require medical supervision.
  • .
  • Socioeconomic conditions. Protein deficiency can also be caused by financial deprivation or limited access to healthy foods.
  • Increased demand for protein. Such a condition occurs, for example, during pregnancy, in people who train intensively or during the healing process of wounds. In such cases, it is necessary to adapt the diet to meet the increased needs of the body.
  • .
  • Health conditions that require low-protein diets. Albinism, phenylketonuria and other genetic diseases require a reduction in protein intake.
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Protein deficiency is also led to by chronic alcohol consumption.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Symptoms

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Protein deficiency in the body can lead to a variety of symptoms, which can be both mild and much more severe, depending on the severity of the deficiency. Symptoms include reduced muscle mass, weakness, fatigue, poorer hair or skin condition, or immune system disorders.

Symptoms of protein deficiencyand:

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Protein deficiency is an important part of the immune system.

Symptom

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Why does it occur

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Less muscle mass

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Protein deficiency, especially in the long term, can lead to loss of muscle mass, as protein is a key muscle-building component.

Fatigue

Lack of protein in the body can result in feelings of chronic fatigue, as it is essential for energy production.

Worsened condition of hair and nails

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Protein is an important building block of tissues. Therefore, a deficiency of it can manifest as brittle nails, skin problems or hair loss.

Weakening of immunity

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Protein is important for the proper functioning of the immune system. People with a protein deficiency may be more susceptible to infection and disease.

Growth disorders

In children, protein deficiency can lead to growth disorders, as protein is essential for the normal development of tissues and cells.

Delayed wound healing

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Protein has an important function in the wound healing process. When it is deficient, it can be delayed.

Dietary protein excess

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Dietary protein excess is a condition in which the amount of protein consumed exceeds your body's needs. Although protein is a very important ingredient necessary for building and repairing cells and tissues, too much protein can lead to health problems.

While a protein deficiency results in muscle weakness and atrophy, an excess of protein can stress the kidneys and liver and lead to other dangerous health conditions.

Causes

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Excess dietary protein can be caused by a variety of factors. However, it is most often due to an improperly balanced diet. This often affects athletes and physically active people who are over-enthusiastic about their protein intake in order to build muscle mass. Other causes include overuse of protein supplements or eating disordersand.

What are the causes of excess protein intake?

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  • An unbalanced diet. A diet high in meat, especially red and processed meat, can lead to excess protein.
  • A diet high in meat, especially red and processed meat, can lead to excess protein.
  • Abuse of protein supplements. It is not uncommon for athletes and people in training to consume large amounts of protein supplements, sometimes without consulting a dietitian, which can result in an excess of protein in the diet.
  • Protein Supplements.
  • Eating disorders. Some eating disorders, such as orthorexia, can lead to excessive protein intake. In such cases, appropriate therapy is needed to regulate the diet.
  • High-protein diets. Diets such as the Atkins diet or the ketogenic diet, which prescribe a high amount of protein, can lead to an unhealthy excess of protein.

Symptoms

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Dietary protein excess can manifest itself in a variety of ways. Although the symptoms of an overdose are usually less obvious than those associated with a deficiency, they can be just as damaging to health. The most common symptoms of protein excess include dehydration, kidney pain, fatigue, or digestive problems.

Dehydration

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An excess of protein in the diet can lead to dehydration. The body uses a lot of water in the process of metabolising protein, so excess protein can increase the risk of dehydration. Symptoms of this condition include feeling thirsty, dry mouth, infrequent urination and reduced sweatingand.

Kidney problems

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Excess protein also puts a strain on the kidneys, which have to filter the products of protein metabolism from the blood. In the long term, this can lead to kidney disorders such as kidney stones and even failure. Symptoms of this problem are usually pain in the lumbar region and changes in the colour of the urine, e.g. to a dark yellow colourand.

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Severe dehydration is very dangerous to health and even life. The simplest and non-invasive test to check this is a urine test. It gives us a lot of information about the state of the kidneys and the whole organism. The appearance of protein in the urine can herald an illness, but it can also be the result of a fever or intense exercise before the test.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Fatigue

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Fatigue is another possible effect of excess protein. It is the result of a strain on the digestive system and an overconsumption of protein at the expense of other nutrients, such as carbohydrates, which provide the body with energyand.

Digestive system problems

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Eating a lot of protein can lead to problems with the digestive system. This can manifest as nausea, abdominal pain, bloating or constipation. The reason for this is the strain on the digestive system, which has to constantly process significant amounts of proteinand.

How to remove excess protein from the body

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To remove excess protein from your body, you should first of all introduce a balanced diet to limit your protein intake to your individual needs. It is also important to drink enough water, exercise regularly and even consult a nutritionist.

How to remove excess protein from the bodyand?

  • Balanced diet. Your diet should be as balanced as possible. It is important that you maintain the correct ratio of protein, carbohydrates and fats. Becoming aware of what foods are sources of protein and controlling your protein intake is the first step to maintaining a healthy protein level.
  • Hydration. Drinking plenty of water is particularly important when protein intake is high. Water helps the kidneys remove the products of their metabolism.
  • .
  • Limit protein supplements. If you are consuming protein supplements, consider limiting them or stopping them completely (at least for a while).
  • Consult a nutritionist. If you are having trouble adjusting your diet, consult a nutritionist. A professional will help tailor your diet to your individual needs, taking into account your protein intake.
  • .
  • Exercise. Regular exercise can help you absorb and use protein to build and repair muscle.

Protein supplementation - how to use?

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Protein supplementation is a practice often used by physically active people and athletes, especially those aiming to increase muscle mass. Protein supplements are available in a variety of forms, including powders, tablets or snacks such as bars, spreads and puddings. However, the most popular is protein powder, which can be easily added to drinks and meals.

Remember, however, that protein supplements are not essential for everyone. People who consume a healthy, balanced diet usually provide their bodies with enough protein without the need for supplementation.

Please note that protein supplements are not necessary for everyone.

What are the types of protein supplements?

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Protein supplements are available in a variety of types and forms to meet the diverse needs of people looking after their diet. The role of such supplements is to provide an extra dose of protein, which may be needed by an athlete, a person exercising or someone on a specialised diet.

  • Whey protein (whey protein). It is one of the most popular protein supplements. Whey protein is easily digested and rich in branched-chain amino acids, which are crucial for muscle repair and growth.
  • Whey protein is a great source of protein.
  • Casein. It is a protein derived from milk that is digested and absorbed more slowly than whey protein. It is these properties that make casein an ideal source of overnight protein, providing the body with the ingredients it needs for a longer period of time.
  • Soy protein. A good source of protein for vegans and vegetarians. Soy protein is a complete protein, meaning it contains all the essential amino acids.
  • .
  • Egg protein. An effective way to provide protein with high biological quality. Egg protein is slowly digested, leading to a gradual and prolonged release of amino acids into the bloodstream.
  • Pea protein. This is another vegan alternative, especially good for people with soy allergies. Peas are a good source of plant protein, and their protein isolate is often used in the manufacture of plant-based supplements.
  • Hemp protein. It is a well-known source of protein for vegans and vegetarians. Hemp is also a source of dietary fibre and essential fatty acids.

What is whey protein?

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Whey protein is one of the most widely used as a dietary supplement due to its high quality and easy digestibility.

What are the types of popular protein to drink?

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  • Whey protein concentrate (WPC)The least processed type of whey protein. It contains between 30-82% protein, with the rest being carbohydrates (including lactose) and fats.
  • .
  • Whey protein isolate (WPI)More processed than WPC - usually contains as much as 90-95% protein. Typically has less fats and carbohydrates in the formulation, making it a good choice for those on a strictly controlled protein diet.
  • Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH)This is pre-digested (hydrolysed) whey protein, which is the most easily and quickly absorbed by the body. It also contains the most protein of all the options - from 90 to as much as 100%. Unfortunately, it is also the most expensive type of whey protein.
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Eating large amounts of whey protein especially by seniors or people with kidney disease can further impede the normal function of the kidneys by increasing plasma urea content, urinary calcium excretion and urine volume. This will result in urinary overload and the possibility of kidney stones.
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Dr Witold Tomaszewski.

Witold Tomaszewskidoctor of medical sciences

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Which protein to choose - ranking of the best proteins

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ALLNUTRITION VEGAN PROTEIN

ALLNUTRITION VEGAN PROTEIN
5.0
  • Protein type: vegetable
  • .
  • Package: 500 g
  • .
  • Number of servings per pack: 17
  • Protein per serving: 21 g
  • .
Product description

A vegan protein supplement in 3 delicious flavours, based on soy protein isolate and proteins from six other plants, which together make up to 75% pure protein in each serving.

VEGAN PROTEIN

VEGAN PROTEIN contains soy protein isolate, protein from pea, cranberry, rice, sunflower, almondów and hemp protein.

.

The supplement is not only for physically active people – it is an ideal source of protein if you do not have time for a valuable meal or do not count macronutrients in your diet. The tasty powder will also support your reduction – it will saturate you and protect you from losing muscle tissue.

Pros and cons

A vegan protein supplement in 3 delicious flavours, based on soy protein isolate and proteins from six other plants, which together make up to 75% pure protein in each serving.

VEGAN PROTEIN

VEGAN PROTEIN contains soy protein isolate, protein from pea, cranberry, rice, sunflower, almondów and hemp protein.

.

The supplement is not only for physically active people – it is an ideal source of protein if you do not have time for a valuable meal or do not count macronutrients in your diet. The tasty powder will also support your reduction – it will saturate you and protect you from losing muscle tissue.

Additional information

A vegan protein supplement in 3 delicious flavours, based on soy protein isolate and proteins from six other plants, which together make up to 75% pure protein in each serving.

VEGAN PROTEIN

VEGAN PROTEIN contains soy protein isolate, protein from pea, cranberry, rice, sunflower, almondów and hemp protein.

.

The supplement is not only for physically active people – it is an ideal source of protein if you do not have time for a valuable meal or do not count macronutrients in your diet. The tasty powder will also support your reduction – it will saturate you and protect you from losing muscle tissue.

Expert opinion

A vegan protein supplement in 3 delicious flavours, based on soy protein isolate and proteins from six other plants, which together make up to 75% pure protein in each serving.

VEGAN PROTEIN

VEGAN PROTEIN contains soy protein isolate, protein from pea, cranberry, rice, sunflower, almondów and hemp protein.

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The supplement is not only for physically active people – it is an ideal source of protein if you do not have time for a valuable meal or do not count macronutrients in your diet. The tasty powder will also support your reduction – it will saturate you and protect you from losing muscle tissue.

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ALLDEYNN VEGEROSE

ALLDEYNN VEGEROSE
4.9
  • Protein type: vegetable
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  • Package: 500 g
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  • Number of servings per pack: 16
  • Protein per serving: 15 g (white chocolate-raspberry and vanilla-berry), 14 g (chocolate)
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Product description

A protein supplement made from five plant proteins enriched with acacia fibre, flaxseed, MCT oil and the probiotic-prebiotic complex LactoWise®. It is a synbiotic thatós stimulates the developmentóy and growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and shows a beneficial effect on the condition of the digestive system.

Pros and cons

A protein supplement made from five plant proteins enriched with acacia fibre, flaxseed, MCT oil and the probiotic-prebiotic complex LactoWise®. It is a synbiotic thatós stimulates the developmentóy and growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and shows a beneficial effect on the condition of the digestive system.

Additional information

A protein supplement made from five plant proteins enriched with acacia fibre, flaxseed, MCT oil and the probiotic-prebiotic complex LactoWise®. It is a synbiotic thatós stimulates the developmentóy and growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and shows a beneficial effect on the condition of the digestive system.

Expert opinion

A protein supplement made from five plant proteins enriched with acacia fibre, flaxseed, MCT oil and the probiotic-prebiotic complex LactoWise®. It is a synbiotic thatós stimulates the developmentóy and growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and shows a beneficial effect on the condition of the digestive system.

ALLDEYNN WHEYROSE

ALLDEYNN WHEYROSE
4.7
  • Protein type: WPC (whey protein concentrate)
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  • Package: 500 g
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  • Number of servings per pack: 16
  • Protein per serving: 22.5 g (white chocolate), 21.9 g (peanut butter), 21.6 g (cookie)
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  • Additional ingredients: DigeZyme® enzymes;
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Product description

Protein supplement containing whey protein concentrate (WPC) with added digestive enzymesós. It digests well, is an easy and quick way to provide protein and can be consumed by people with lactose intolerance. It will work well not only as a stand-alone drinkóy but also as a tasty addition to shakesóy, dessertsóy, oatmeal or omeletóy.

WHEYROSE contains five digestive enzymes that help break down macromolecules into smaller components, so that the ingredients from food and the nutrient are absorbed even better. This minimises or even eliminates digestive discomfort. Such an addition is rare in protein supplements.

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Pros and cons

Protein supplement containing whey protein concentrate (WPC) with added digestive enzymesós. It digests well, is an easy and quick way to provide protein and can be consumed by people with lactose intolerance. It will work well not only as a stand-alone drinkóy but also as a tasty addition to shakesóy, dessertsóy, oatmeal or omeletóy.

WHEYROSE contains five digestive enzymes that help break down macromolecules into smaller components, so that the ingredients from food and the nutrient are absorbed even better. This minimises or even eliminates digestive discomfort. Such an addition is rare in protein supplements.

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Additional information

Protein supplement containing whey protein concentrate (WPC) with added digestive enzymesós. It digests well, is an easy and quick way to provide protein and can be consumed by people with lactose intolerance. It will work well not only as a stand-alone drinkóy but also as a tasty addition to shakesóy, dessertsóy, oatmeal or omeletóy.

WHEYROSE contains five digestive enzymes that help break down macromolecules into smaller components, so that the ingredients from food and the nutrient are absorbed even better. This minimises or even eliminates digestive discomfort. Such an addition is rare in protein supplements.

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User review

Protein supplement containing whey protein concentrate (WPC) with added digestive enzymesós. It digests well, is an easy and quick way to provide protein and can be consumed by people with lactose intolerance. It will work well not only as a stand-alone drinkóy but also as a tasty addition to shakesóy, dessertsóy, oatmeal or omeletóy.

WHEYROSE contains five digestive enzymes that help break down macromolecules into smaller components, so that the ingredients from food and the nutrient are absorbed even better. This minimises or even eliminates digestive discomfort. Such an addition is rare in protein supplements.

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See also: Everything you need to know about protein nutrition

When to drink protein - before or after training?

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The timing of your protein intake during the day doesn't really matter. You can tailor it to your individual preferences. What is much more important is the complete dose of protein you take in during the day. It is equally important to take in protein at every meal - ensure that your meals do not contain less protein than 0.4 g/kg body weightand.

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It is worth consuming protein at the beginning of the day. This will give your metabolism a "rhythm" and supply your body with satiating protein. On training days, it is a good idea to provide the body with a portion of protein no later than four hours after training. This practice, in addition to supporting your body's protein synthesis, will also provide protection against the feeling of hunger that often accompanies us after an exercise session.
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Marta Kaczorek.

Marta Kaczorekclinical nutritionist and personal trainer

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See also:

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What effects will you see after a month of taking protein?

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Regularly taking protein as a dietary supplement for a month can lead to different results. However, most often 4 weeks is not enough to see major changes. You may, however, see a small improvement in the context ofand:

  • Increase muscle mass. Protein is a key muscle-building ingredient, so its supplementation combined with appropriately heavy weight training can help increase muscle mass.
  • Improve recovery. Protein intake can contribute to faster muscle recovery after training, resulting in more effective workouts and less discomfort and potential pain.
  • Increase endurance. Some people may see an improvement in endurance in training, particularly with high intensity exercise.
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  • Reduce feelings of hunger. Protein helps maintain feelings of satiety, which can reduce hunger and control kilocalorie intake.
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Study

A 2016 meta-analysis of studies, including tests conducted on a group of 192 regular strength-training individuals, took a closer look at the effects of whey protein supplementation. The results of these studies suggest that the use of such supplements contributes to increases in both muscle mass and strength. Furthermore, the results of supplementation proved even more rewarding when participants also added creatineand to their diet.

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From how old can you take protein?

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Protein is the main building block of muscle, so it is important for people who are actively training, including young athletes. As for its intake, there is no specific "minimum age" set. Nevertheless, it is worth consulting a specialist for any dietary supplements you take under the age of 18.

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Protein or creatine - which to choose?

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The choice between protein and creatine depends on your personal fitness goals. Both creatine and protein promote muscle mass gain, but they differ in the way they work. The choice between the two is not binary - both supplements can be used together.

 

Proteinand

Creatine 

Purpose

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Restores amino acid stores after workouts and promotes muscle recovery and growth.

Restores amino acids after workouts and promotes muscle recovery and growth.

Increases strength and muscle mass by enhancing exercise capacity and increases the water content of muscle cells and the concentration of IGF-1, a key hormone for muscle growth.

Dosage

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Depends on individual needs, but the usual recommended daily dosage is around 1.8-2.2 g per kg of body weight for people who are training.

The standard dose is 3-5 g per day.

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Time of intake

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It doesn't matter - take it whenever you want.

Take it when you want it.

Recommended to be used daily, regardless of the time of day.

Recommended to be used daily, regardless of the time of day.

Side effects

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It is usually well tolerated, but occasionally stomach problems may occur.

Side effects

It is usually well tolerated, but sometimes stomach problems may occur.

May cause weight gain associated with hydration of muscle tissue.

May cause weight gain associated with hydration of muscle tissue.

Can you overdose on protein?

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Yes, it is possible to overdose on protein. This can lead to several health problems. Although your body needs this ingredient to build and repair tissues, too much can put a strain on your kidneys, leading to kidney problems in the long term.

Protein overdose is not an option.

Protein overdose can also manifest as digestive problems or loss of calcium in the body, which can even result in osteoporosis. Therefore, you should always use the correct dosage and monitor any side effects.

Protein in urine

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Protein in the urine, also known as proteinuria, is a condition in which there is more protein in the urine than normal. Under normal conditions, urine has very small amounts of protein, but when more protein appears it can indicate a dangerous health condition that requires treatment.

The norm for protein in urine in adults, children or pregnant women is the same and is less than 150 mg per day. Remember, however, that individual laboratories may interpret test results differently, so you should always look at them with your doctorand.

What does protein in urine mean?

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Protein in the urine can indicate various health problems, especially those related to the kidneys. Sometimes it is a sign of damaged kidneys. If this condition is left undiagnosed and untreated, it can even result in chronic failure of these organs.

Kidney failure is a condition in which the kidneys are no longer able to effectively filter waste and excess fluid from the blood. This usually leads to serious complications, including a build-up of harmful substances in the body leading to poisoningand.

Additionally, protein in the urine can also be a symptom of other serious conditions, such as hypertension or diabetes, which are the leading causes of renal disorders worldwide. Long-term hypertension can lead to damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.

Causes of excess protein in the urine

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The causes of protein in the urine are various. The most common are kidney disease, diabetes or high blood pressure. Sometimes inflammation or even heavy physical work will also lead to this condition.

Track of protein in urine - causesand:

  • Kidney diseases. Kidney failure and other renal conditions can lead to proteinuria, as improperly functioning kidneys are unable to filter protein properly. This means that larger amounts of it can pass into the urine.
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  • Diabetes. Long-term, uncontrolled diabetes is one of the main causes of kidney damage. As a result, the kidneys begin to pass excessive amounts of protein into the urine.
  • Diabetes.
  • High blood pressure. Chronic high blood pressure can lead to damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys. This will result in protein in the urine.
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  • Inflammation. Kidney inflammation can cause protein to pass through the kidney walls into the urine.
  • Hard physical work. Intense physical training, fever or stress can sometimes cause proteinuria, but this is usually a temporary condition and less worrisome than others.

Symptoms

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When the amounts are small, protein in the urine may not cause any visible symptoms. When there is more of it, however, it can lead to symptoms such asand:

  • foam in the urine,
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  • swelling (e.g. around the face),
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  • loss of appetite,
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  • fatigue,
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  • increased thirst,
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Note

Remember that the above-mentioned symptoms are very general and can therefore indicate a variety of health problems. If you are experiencing them, visit your GP who will decide what the next steps are.

How is urine protein diagnosed?

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Protein in the urine is often diagnosed by laboratory tests. When a doctor suspects that a patient may have protein in the urine, he or she will certainly order the appropriate tests to confirm the diagnosis and identify possible causes.

  • General urine test. A basic diagnostic test that helps detect the presence of protein in the urine. It involves analysing a urine sample in a laboratory and measures the ratio of protein to creatinine, which is a constant.
  • Wet protein test. This test is more specific, detecting specific types of protein, such as albumin - the main protein that permeates the urine in cases of kidney damage.
  • 24-hour urine test. This test collects all the urine a patient produces for 24 hours. This helps to determine the exact amount of protein flushed out per day.
  • Blood test. It can be ordered to check kidney function and determine the patient's overall health.
  • Kidney ultrasound. This allows visualisation of the structure of the kidneys and surrounding tissues to identify any visible damage or abnormalities.
  • Kidney biopsy. In cases where the results of other tests are not clear or suggest serious kidney problems, a specialist may recommend a kidney biopsy. This procedure involves taking a small sample of kidney tissue for examination under a microscope.
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How to get rid of protein in the urine?

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The treatment of protein in the urine depends mainly on the underlying cause that causes the condition. Most commonly, however, appropriate medication or diet is used, as well as lifestyle control.

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Method of treatmentand

When is it used?and

Pressure medicines

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Pressure-lowering medications are often recommended when the cause of protein in the urine is hypertension.

Control of blood sugar levels

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Maintaining proper blood sugar levels by a person with diabetes, can help reduce the amount of protein in the urine.

Diet

Adequate diet, with low salt and protein intake, can effectively reduce the burden on the kidneys.

Diet.

Immunosuppressive therapy

If proteinuria is caused by autoimmune diseases, immunosuppressive therapy may be needed.

If proteinuria is caused by autoimmune diseases, immunosuppressive therapy may be needed.

Lifestyle changes

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General lifestyle improvements, including regular exercise or quitting smoking, can help control urinary protein.

Lifestyle changes, including regular exercise or quitting smoking, can help control urinary protein.

Remember, however, that these are only examples of ways to combat protein in the urine. Specific recommendations depend on your condition and should always be determined by your doctor.

Protein in pregnancy

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During pregnancy, protein plays a number of key roles, including supporting the baby's brain development, helping the mother maintain healthy muscles and tissues, and being a source of energy. It is also essential to cope with the increased nutrient requirements for a growing baby.

The recommended daily intake of protein for pregnant women is approximately 1.1 g/kg body weight in the first trimester and 1.2 g/kg in the second and second trimesters.

It is, however, advisable to consult a doctor or dietician, as individual needs may vary depending on a woman's weight, lifestyle and general healthand.

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Protein can also help control weight gain during pregnancy, helping you to feel full. A balanced diet rich in protein, vitaminsminerals and healthy fats provides you and your baby with the ingredients you need to thrive.

Protein versus breastfeeding

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Just as during pregnancy, during breastfeeding protein is an important part of every woman's diet. It is crucial for the proper development and growth of newborns and infants. It also provides essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of cells. Breastfeeding women should take in about 1.4 grams per kg of body weight protein.

Check also:Protein-rich products (plant and animal)

Summary

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  • Protein is a complex organic compound, made up of one or more chains called polypeptides.
  • Proteins are essential components of all living cells and are required for tissue growth and regeneration.
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  • Proteins play a key role in almost every biological process in the body, including building and repairing tissues, catalysing chemical reactions, transporting substances, coordinating biological processes, defending the body and regulating gene function.
  • Meat (especially chicken and turkey), fish, eggs and dairy products are rich sources of protein.
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  • Protein deficiency can manifest with reduced muscle mass, weakness, fatigue, poorer hair and skin condition and immune system disorders.
  • Too much protein in the diet overloads the kidneys and liver, and leads to dehydration, fatigue and digestive problems.
  • Protein requirements depend on age, gender, activity level and health status, but an intake of around 1.8-2.2 g per kg body weight is recommended for those who are actively training.
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  • Protein in urine can be a sign of kidney damage, hypertension or diabetes.
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  • Protein is crucial for fetal development during pregnancy and newborn development during breastfeeding - during these periods, you should consume approx. 70-75 grams of protein per day.

FAQ

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. Protein for weight loss for girls and guys - does it work?.

Protein can effectively help in the fight against excess weight. It provides the body with the necessary ingredients to build muscle mass and also increases the feeling of satiety by reducing kilocalorie intake. Remember, however, that it will never replace a balanced diet and physical activity - it can only be an addition.

When using protein for weight loss, remember to maintain the right proportions. If you are not regularly physically active, take in around 1.6-1.8 g of protein per kg of body weight. If you are an athlete, use between 1.8 and even 2.2 g of protein per kg of body weight.

. What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins?.

Complete proteins, also known as complete proteins, contain all the essential amino acids that the body cannot produce on its own - essential amino acids. You can find them mainly in products of animal origin - meat, fish, eggs, milk.

Incomplete proteins, on the other hand, called incomplete proteins, are those that lack one or more essential amino acids. These are found primarily in plant-based products, such as  plants legumes or cereals.

They are also called incomplete proteins.

Without the right combination of these foods, your body may lack the full pool of amino acids it needs.

. Is it possible to have a protein allergy?.

Yes, it is possible to have an allergy to protein. Moreover, it is one of the more common forms of food allergy. Reactions can be triggered by a variety of proteins, but the most common proteins involved are those from milk, eggs, soya, nuts, fish and shellfish.

Symptoms of a protein allergy can include a rash, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, vomiting and, in extreme cases, anaphylaxis. If you suspect that you may have a protein allergy, contact an allergologist.

. Is protein powder healthy?.

Protein powder can be a healthy supplement diet for people who have difficulty meeting their protein requirements through food. This is especially true for athletes and people in training. Remember, however, that protein powder is not essential if your diet is well balanced and contains sufficient protein from other sources.

. How does protein affect acne?.

Some studies suggest that a high-protein diet may enhance insulin and IGF-1 production, which in turn may lead to increased sebum formation and inflammation - both factors associated with acne. However, the evidence is inconclusive, so further research is needed in this area.

. Is protein harmful?.

No, protein is a fundamental component of a healthy dietary pattern and plays a key role in many bodily functions. The exception to this is its excessive consumption, especially over a long period of time. This can lead to a number of health problems, such as kidney strain, loss of calcium from the body, dehydration and digestive disorders.

Also, certain forms of protein (e.g. from red meat or processed meat products) can increase the risk of selected diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. Therefore, it is important to consume protein in a balanced way, adhering to the recommended daily intake and making sure it is sourced from a variety of healthy sources.

. What 'flushes' protein out of the body?.

Protein in the body is flushed out primarily by insufficient intake, such as as a result of diet a diet poor in this component or starvation. Health problems such as gastrointestinal diseases (for example Crohn's disease, coeliac disease, malabsorption syndrome) can impede the absorption of protein, which also lowers protein levels.

Additionally, certain pathological conditions such as severe inflammation of the liver, renal failure or thyroid conditions can lead to increased protein loss or reduced protein production. Furthermore, even stress and lack of sleep can also flush protein out of the body.

. Does protein help you gain weight?.

Yes, protein can help you gain weight in a healthy way, especially if combined with regular strength training. It helps to build muscle mass, which in turn can lead to weight gain.

Remember, however, that protein consumption alone without additional exercise does not necessarily translate into weight gain. Additionally, in order to gain weight in a healthy way, it is advisable to increase your total kilocalorie intake, not only of protein, but also of healthy fats and carbohydrates.

Please be aware of this.

. Is a protein-free diet dangerous?.

A diet completely devoid of protein is very dangerous and contraindicated, as this ingredient is a key component of the diet. It is an essential building block for muscle, skin, hair, enzymes and hormones, and an important contributor to the immune system.

Protein deficiency can lead to a number of health problems, such as loss of muscle mass, healing problems, weakened immune system, and reduced muscle strength.

. What has more protein - egg yolk or egg white?.

In an egg, the protein content is as follows: most of the protein is in the white (shell), about 60% of the total, while the yolk contains about 40% protein. However, we are talking about one standard egg. And when we consider 100 grams of white and yolk - the situation is quite different.

The egg white contains about 10.9 grams of protein per 100 grams, while the egg yolk contains about 15.9 grams of protein per 100 grams.

. Are amino acids proteins?.

Amino acids are not proteins, but they are the basic units from which proteins are made up. A protein is a long chain of amino acids linked by specific bonds called peptide bonds.

. What is protein intolerance?.

Protein intolerance is a condition in which a person has difficulty digesting certain proteins contained in food. This is most often the result of a lack of enzymes needed to process specific proteins. Examples of protein intolerance include cow's milk protein intolerance (which is different from a milk allergy) or gluten intolerance (coeliac disease).

Symptoms of protein intolerance can include diarrhoea, upset stomach, bloating and in some cases can be life-threatening. People with protein intolerances should avoid foods that contain the proteins that are problematic for them.

Protein intolerance is an important consideration.

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Sources

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Allowances, N. R. C. (U.S.) S. on the T. E. of the R. D. (1989). Protein and Amino Acids. In Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. National Academies Press (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234922/

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