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Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), or nerve regeneration [action, properties, dosage].

The antioxidant of antioxidants, or alpha-lipoic acid in a pill (capsule?).

Emilia Moskal - AuthorAuthorEmilia Moskal
Emilia Moskal - Author
AuthorEmilia Moskal
Natu.Care Editor

Emilia Moskal specialises in medical and psychological texts, including content for medical entities. She is a fan of simple language and reader-friendly communication. At Natu.Care, she writes educational articles.

Learn more about our editorial process

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Ilona Bush - Reviewed byReviewed byIlona Bush
Verified by an expert
Ilona Bush - Reviewed by
Reviewed byIlona Bush
Master of Pharmacy

Ilona Krzak obtained her Master of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of Wrocław. She did her internship in a hospital pharmacy and in the pharmaceutical industry. She is currently working in the profession and also runs an educational profile on Instagram: @pani_z_apteki

Learn more about our editorial process

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Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited byEdited byBartholomew Turczynski
Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited by
Edited byBartholomew Turczynski
Editor-in-Chief

Bartłomiej Turczyński is the editor-in-chief of Natu.Care. He is responsible for the quality of the content created on Natu.Care, among others, and ensures that all articles are based on sound scientific research and consulted with industry specialists.

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Ludwig Jelonek - Fact-checkingFact-checkingLudwig Jelonek
Ludwig Jelonek - Fact-checking
Fact-checkingLudwig Jelonek
Natu.Care Editor

Ludwik Jelonek is the author of more than 2,500 texts published on leading portals. His content has found its way into services such as Ostrovit and Kobieta Onet. At Natu.Care, Ludwik educates people in the most important area of life - health.

Learn more about our editorial process

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Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), or nerve regeneration [action, properties, dosage].
29 April, 2024
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This ALA does not have a cat. Instead, it holds the title of 'king of antioxidants'. Meet afla-lipoic acid - a drug used in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It is suspected of having weight-loss-enhancing and age-stopping properties.

Alpha-lipoic acid may also help with ailments such as insulin resistance, diabetes and liver disorders. It may also have a protective effect on the nervous system and may even contribute to the elimination of cancer cells. Well, exactly - may. Because research into the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid on such ailments is still scarce...

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From this article you will learn:

  • What is alpha-lipoic acid and R alpha-lipoic acid.
  • What is alpha-lipoic acid?
  • What properties ALA has.
  • .
  • What research says about the effects of ALA.
  • .
  • Is it possible to be deficient in alpha-lipoic acid and what are its sources in the diet.
  • .
  • What daily dose of ALA acid is safe and whether it has side effects.
  • .

See also:

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What is alpha-lipoic acid?

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ALA, ALA acid, lipoic acid or thioctic acid - they call it variously. But in fact, it's all about alpha-lipoic acid all the time, which is an organic compound made up of sulphatesand

Alpha-lipoic acid is naturally produced in your body. However, this doesn't mean you don't need to take it along with diet. According to research, around 60% of ALA acid in the body comes specifically from foodand.

Alpha-lipoic acid

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R alpha-lipoic acid consists of s-lipoic acid and r-lipoic acid. R-lipoic acid (R-ALA) is the natural form of alpha-lipoic acid. It is also the closest to the one produced by the body, which is why it is believed to show better bioavailability (i.e. it is better absorbed).

R-ALA acid also shows more health-promoting properties and is much more beneficial to the body than its mateand.

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Alpha-lipoic acid: properties

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The properties of afla-lipoic acid are primarily to combat free radicals. As a powerful antioxidant ALA contributes to the prevention of antioxidant stress and delays cell degradation processes. At the mitochondrial level, it is also involved in bioenergetic reactionsand.

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ALA acid can regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, coenzyme Q10 and glutathione and is often referred to as a universal antioxidant.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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ALA acid is one of the essential components for energy production in the body's cells. Among other things, this means that it is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. It is also responsible for gene transcription, i.e. transcribing the information contained in your DNA so that it can be copied and used to produce, for example, proteins and enzymesand.

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ALA is stored mainly in the heart, kidneys and liver.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Did you know that...

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Alpha-lipoic acid is soluble in both water and fatand.

Alpha-lipoic acid: what it helps with

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Alpha-lipoic acid has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Moreover, it can also regenerate other antioxidants in the body. On top of this, it increases cellular sensitivity to insulin and aids glucose absorption.

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The promising effect of ALA administration on reducing inflammatory markers such as CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α has been noted. It is noteworthy that a sustained CRP level >3.5 mg/l increases the risk of cardiovascular events.
Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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By regulating metabolic processes and fighting free radicals, ALA may also help treat insulin resistance, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other ailments caused by oxidative stressand.

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Significant improvements in pain have been observed following oral ALA supplementation at doses of 400 to 600 mg/day for pain in conditions such as migraine, back pain, and pain associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Nerve system

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Alpha-lipoic acid may support nerve regeneration. Studies show that intravenous administration of 600 mg, for at least three weeks, improved the flow of impulses in peripheral nerve fibres, reducing pain and numbness in patients with neuropathy. Unfortunately, this form of therapy is not reimbursed in Poland.

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Alpha-lipoic acid may have a protective effect on brain cells. In an in vitro study conducted in 2003, ALA was shown to have a neuroprotective effectand. As a result, it may support memory, cognitive function and intellectual abilities.

Magister of Pharmacy Ilona Krzak talks about an interesting study showing the effects of ALA acid on migraine headaches:

"Ninety-two women suffering from episodic migraines participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study. Participants were randomly assigned to a group receiving 300 mg ALA daily or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks.

The participants were randomly assigned to a group receiving 300 mg ALA daily or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks.

The migraine headache index score was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with the control group.

AlA supplementation can be considered as a potential adjunctive therapy in migraine patients due to the improvement in mitochondrial and endothelial function and clinical symptoms."

Some studies also indicate that ALA acid may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseaseand. Oxidative stress is considered one of the main causes of this neurodegenerative disease and can be accompanied by inflammation. Alpha-lipoic acid counteracts both.

However, there is still too little scientific evidence (especially studies with humans) to conclusively support the efficacy of ALA treatment in Alzheimer's disease.

In contrast, a 2018 study tested the effects of ALA acid on a group of 21 multiple sclerosis patients. Researchers noted improvements in motor function in those with less disabilityand.

This study, however, is only a prelude to learning more about the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in supporting the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Thyroid

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Alpha-lipoic acid can reduce the concentration of hormones thyroid. Therefore, people suffering from disorders of this organ should consult an endocrinologist before starting ALA acid supplementsand.

Today, there is a lack of human scientific studies evaluating the effects of alpha-lipoic acid on thyroid function, although there are many indications that ALA and the thyroid are not indifferent. 

A case-control analysis of hypothyroidism in 2022 rats showed an improvement in their condition after supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid or metforminand. Would these substances have had the same effect in tailless bipedal mammals? Not known.

See also:

Cancer

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Always when I hear about miraculous discoveries and substances that 'cure' cancer, I immediately become suspicious. However, I cannot ignore reports of ALA acid's achievements in the fight against cancer. Here is what the research says:

The antioxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid may contribute to the death of cancer cells in certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer and lung cancerand.

However, it is also a fact that ALA acid can interact with chemotherapy preparations and interfere with their effects .

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What is the conclusion? ALA acid can be a great ally in preventing the development of cancer. However, if you are suffering from cancer and want to start taking alpha-lipoic acid - be sure to consult your oncologist. And under no circumstances treat ALA acid as the only treatment! I want this to resound: ALA acid is not a cure for cancer.

Diabetes

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Thanks to its properties affecting cellular insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, alpha-lipoic acid may help treat insulin resistance and diabetes.

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Complementary therapies, such as antioxidant supplementation, are recommended in patients with metabolic disorders to improve their nutritional status and strengthen the immune system.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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A retrospective observational study involving 322 patients treated with different doses of ALA (i.e. 400, 600, 800 and 1,200 mg/day) concluded that chronic use (4 years) of ALA is well tolerated at all doses, with improvement in glycaemic status only at high doses in those with disglycaemia, adds pharmacist.

However, the most research has been devoted to the effect of ALA acid on patients with diabetic neuropathy, a dangerous complication accompanying an advanced form of diabetesand.

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Diabetic neuropathy manifests as severe muscle pain and spasms, as well as muscle weakness, which can lead to mobility problems and disability. Results from numerous studies suggest that supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid reduced pain and improved overall function in patientsand.

The greatest efficacy of ALA acid in diabetic neuropathy is demonstrated by its intravenous administration - in the form of an injection. Unfortunately, this method of treatment is not reimbursed in Poland and one has to bear the full costs.

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Important

AlAcid in the form of an injectable drug should always be administered by a doctor.

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Other

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Alpha-lipoic acid may also be helpful in:

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    .
  • delaying the body's ageing process,
  • .
  • alleviating symptoms of ailments of the liver,
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  • removal of metals from the body (including chelation of iron),
  • .
  • prevention of cardiovascular disease,
  • .
  • weight reduction,
  • .

Speaking of the efficacy of ALA acid in weight loss, I must add that the conclusions of the studies are not consistent. The results show a considerable discrepancy between the weight loss effects obtained. In some studies they are clear, in others quite the oppositeand.

There is no doubt that while ALA can help in the fight against unwanted pounds, a calorie deficit (achieved through a balanced diet) and physical activity are key.

Alpha-lipoic acid: deficiency and excess

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Alpha-lipoic acid is crucial for many processes in the body. Despite this, symptoms of its deficiency are unlikely to be observed. The exceptions are people suffering from very rare genetic disorders that interfere with the natural synthesis of ALA in the body.

Similarly, it is difficult to overdose on alpha-lipoic acid, although incidents of accidental or deliberate ingestion of huge portions of it have been reported in medicine. 

Overdose has been associated with neurological symptoms, cardiac arrhythmias and metabolic acidosisand. In one case, a 14-year-old girl who took a large amount of alpha-lipoic acid in a suicide attempt developed multiple organ failure, leading to death .

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Remember

Safe supplementation is sensible supplementation. Always follow the manufacturer's guidelines for daily servings of the product, unless your doctor recommends a different dosage.

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When it comes to the safety of ALA, a number of clinical studies have shown that ALA is very well tolerated and no significant side effects have been observed compared to placebo.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Alpha-lipoic acid: drug or dietary supplement

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There are both alpha-lipoic acid preparations available on the Polish market in the form of a medicine and dietary supplement. When deciding on a particular product, it is worth bearing in mind that the marketing of a medicine (even one available over-the-counter) requires the submission of appropriate studies. This ensures that you are assured that the preparation will work and that its manufacturing process is controlled.

On the other hand, many of the top manufacturers of dietary supplements offer products with high-quality ingredients and also have tests and certifications to prove the purity and grade of the raw materials.

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Each batch of a released medicine is subject to further inspection by the manufacturer and, in the event of irregularities, the medicine is withdrawn or withheld from the market. There is no such control in the case of supplements.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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What is certainly worth paying attention to when choosing ALA acid is its form. The best action and absorption into the body is demonstrated by R-ALA acidand.

Alpha-lipoic acid: sources in the diet

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You don't need to take drugs or supplements at all to provide yourself with ALA acid. The following are rich in it:

  • spinach,
  • .
  • broccoli,
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  • tomatoes,
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  • beef offal,
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  • potatoes,
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  • green peas,
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  • rice bran,
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  • beef,
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  • carrots,
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  • beet,
  • .

Alpha-lipoic acid: dosage

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Neither a daily requirement or a maximum daily dose has been specified for alpha-lipoic acid. However, it is considered safe for adults to take between 200 mg and 2,400 mg of ALA dailyand.

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Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that various doses (50-600 mg) of orally administered ALA are completely absorbed within 30-60 minutes, with a plasma half-life of 30 minutes.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Most of the studies on alpha-lipoic acid involved giving patients daily doses of approximately 600 mgand.

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Note

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There are no studies examining the effects of ALA acid on children. Thus, a safe dose of this substance has not been determined, and therefore it is not recommended to be administered to anyone under the age of 18and.

Alpha-lipoic acid: contraindications

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Alpha-lipoic acid is a safe substance; however, it may interact with some medications. Therefore, if you are taking any medication, consult your doctor before taking ALA.

Caution is advised.

Caution is also advised for those suffering from diseases in which alpha-lipoic acid aids therapy (as it may unnecessarily potentiate the effects of other drugs). Beware should also be taken by people with disorders of the liver, low levels of thyroid hormones and iron deficienciesand.

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Remember

Alpha-lipoic acid interferes with the action of chemotherapy preparations. Do not take it if you are using this method of treatment.

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Alpha-lipoic acid: side effects

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The most common side effects of taking alpha-lipoic acid preparations are:

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  • problems with the digestive system,
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  • skin lesions,
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  • allergic reactions,
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  • dizziness,
  • .

Most of the above symptoms are associated with sensitisation to specific components of ingested productsand.

Alpha-lipoic acid: what not to combine with

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The effects of alpha-lipoic acid preparations may be reduced:

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  • alcohol,
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  • protein,
  • .
  • calcium,
  • .
  • iron,
  • .
  • zinc,
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  • magnesium,
  • .
  • manganese,
  • .

At the same time, if you are taking any organic metals (e.g. iron), alpha-lipoic acid will neutralise their effects and accelerate their removal from the bodyand.

Summary

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  • Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a compound composed of sulfates.
  • The body is capable of synthesizing the following compounds.
  • The body is able to synthesise ALA on its own, however, we supply most of the requirement with our diet.
  • The body is able to synthesise ALA on its own, however, we supply most of the requirement with our diet.
  • R-ALA acid is the best form of alpha-lipoic acid.
  • .
  • ALA acid is a powerful antioxidant that can regenerate other antioxidants in the body.
  • .
  • Alpha-lipoic acid also affects insulin metabolism and glucose metabolism.
  • .
  • Alpha-lipoic acid helps in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, has a protective effect on the nervous system and slows down the degenerative processes of cells.
  • The daily requirement for ALA acid nor its maximum dose has not been established.
  • The following is an example.
  • Both deficiency and excess of alpha-lipoic acid are very rare.
  • .
  • People taking medication, suffering from liver ailments and those with metal deficiencies (e.g. iron, zinc) should exercise caution when taking supplementation.
  • .

FAQ

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. Is alpha-lipoic acid safe?.

Yes, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is considered a safe substance. It occurs naturally in the human body and is also synthesised there. 

Although no daily requirement for ALA acid or maximum daily dose has been determined, doses of 200 mg to 2,400 mg are assumed to have no side effects. However, like any active substance, alpha-lipoic acid can cause allergic reactions.

. Does alpha-lipoic acid cleanse the body?.

Alpha-lipoic acid binds metal compounds and helps remove them from the body. It can also be used as an antidote for poisoning ironzinc and even lead. However, for this reason, people who are deficient in iron (and other natural metals) should not supplement with ALA.

. Does alpha-lipoic acid lose weight?.

Some studies suggest that alpha-lipoic acid may aid weight loss, due to its enhancement of tissue insulin sensitivity and regulation of glucose metabolism. However, ALA acid should not be considered as a weight loss agent. For weight loss, proper diet and physical activity are crucial.

. When to take alpha-lipoic acid?.

The time of day you take alpha-lipoic acid does not matter. What is important, however, is that you take it on an empty stomach - at least one hour before eating. In this way, you increase its bioavailability.

. How much ALA acid per day?.

The daily requirement for alpha-lipoic acid has not been determined. Based on research, 600 mg of ALA per day may be considered a therapeutic dose, but daily servings of up to 2400 mg are considered safe and have no side effects.

. Is it possible to buy alpha-lipoic acid in a pharmacy?".

Yes, you can find many preparations with ALA acid at the pharmacy. You can choose from medicines (including over-the-counter ones) and dietary supplements. You can find alpha-lipoic acid in tablet form and in intravenous injection liquids - to be administered by a doctor.

. Does alpha-lipoic acid lower sugar?.

Alpha-lipoic acid may be helpful in the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes due to its properties of increasing cellular sensitivity to insulin and regulating glucose metabolism. However, if you are diabetic, do not take ALA acid on your own - always consult your doctor before starting supplementation.

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Sources

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. See all.

Alpha Lipoic Acid-Health Encyclopedia-University of Rochester Medical Center. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2023, from https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=19&contentid=AlphalipoicAcid

Alpha-lipoic acid Information | Mount Sinai-New York. (n.d.). Mount Sinai Health System. Retrieved September 28, 2023, from https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/supplement/alpha-lipoic-acid

Emir, D. F., Ozturan, I. U., & Yilmaz, S. (2018). Alpha lipoic acid intoxicatıon: An adult. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine36(6), 1125.e3-1125.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.03.022

Gomes, M. B., & Negrato, C. A. (2014). Alpha-lipoic acid as a pleiotropic compound with potential therapeutic use in diabetes and other chronic diseases. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome6(1), 80. https://doi.org/10.1186/1758-5996-6-80

Hadzik, B., Grass, H., Mayatepek, E., Daldrup, T., & Hoehn, T. (2014). Fatal Non-accidental Alpha-lipoic Acid Intoxication in an Adolescent Girl. Klinische Pädiatrie226(05), 292-294. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1372622

Khoder, N. M., Sawie, H. G., Sharada, H. M., Hosny, E. N., Khadrawy, Y. A., & Abdulla, M. S. (2022). Metformin and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate hypothyroidism and its complications in adult male rats. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders21(2), 1327-1337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-022-01063-7

Lipoic Acid-An overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2023, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/lipoic-acid

Lovell, M. A., Xie, C., Xiong, S., & Markesbery, W. R. (2003). Protection against amyloid beta peptide and iron/hydrogen peroxide toxicity by alpha lipoic acid. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease5(3), 229-239. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2003-5306

Loy, B. D., Fling, B. W., Horak, F. B., Bourdette, D. N., & Spain, R. I. (2018). Effects of lipoic acid on walking performance, gait, and balance in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Complementary Therapies in Medicine41, 169-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2018.09.006

Nguyen, H., & Gupta, V. (2023). Alpha-Lipoic Acid. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK564301/

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Odabasoglu, F., Halici, Z., Aygun, H., Halici, M., Atalay, F., Cakir, A., Cadirci, E., Bayir, Y., & Suleyman, H. (2011). α-Lipoic acid has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties: An experimental study in rats with carrageenan-induced acute and cotton pellet-induced chronic inflammations. British Journal of Nutrition105(1), 31-43. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510003107

Rezaei Zonooz, S., Hasani, M., Morvaridzadeh, M., Beatriz Pizarro, A., Heydari, H., Yosaee, S., Rezamand, G., & Heshmati, J. (2021). Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on oxidative stress parameters: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Functional Foods87, 104774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2021.104774

Salehi, B., Berkay Yılmaz, Y., Antika, G., Boyunegmez Tumer, T., Fawzi Mahomoodally, M., Lobine, D., Akram, M., Riaz, M., Capanoglu, E., Sharopov, F., Martins, N., Cho, W. C., & Sharifi-Rad, J. (2019). Insights on the Use of α-Lipoic Acid for Therapeutic Purposes. Biomolecules9(8), Article 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9080356

Tripathi, A. K., Ray, A. K., Mishra, S. K., Bishen, S. M., Mishra, H., & Khurana, A. (2023). Molecular and Therapeutic Insights of Alpha-Lipoic Acid as a Potential Molecule for Disease Prevention. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia33(2), 272-287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43450-023-00370-1

Viana, M. D. M., Lauria, P. S. S., Lima, A. A. de, Opretzka, L. C. F., Marcelino, H. R., & Villarreal, C. F. (2022). Alpha-Lipoic Acid as an Antioxidant Strategy for Managing Neuropathic Pain. Antioxidants11(12), Article 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11122420

Wolinsky, I., & Driskell, J. A. (2004). Nutritional Ergogenic Aids. CRC Press. https://books.google.pl/books/about/Nutritional_Ergogenic_Aids.html?id=Ix8l0yAHqvUC&redir_esc=y 

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Meet the team
Emilia Moskal - Author

Natu.Care Editor

Emilia Moskal specialises in medical and psychological texts, including content for medical entities. She is a fan of simple language and reader-friendly communication. At Natu.Care, she writes educational articles.

Ilona Bush - Reviewed by

Master of Pharmacy

Verified by an expert

Ilona Krzak obtained her Master of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of Wrocław. She did her internship in a hospital pharmacy and in the pharmaceutical industry. She is currently working in the profession and also runs an educational profile on Instagram: @pani_z_apteki

Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited by

Editor-in-Chief

Bartłomiej Turczyński is the editor-in-chief of Natu.Care. He is responsible for the quality of the content created on Natu.Care, among others, and ensures that all articles are based on sound scientific research and consulted with industry specialists.

Ludwig Jelonek - Fact-checking

Natu.Care Editor

Ludwik Jelonek is the author of more than 2,500 texts published on leading portals. His content has found its way into services such as Ostrovit and Kobieta Onet. At Natu.Care, Ludwik educates people in the most important area of life - health.

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