Antioxidants: what they are and how they work + natural examples in the diet

They fight free radicals and take care of our health. See how to provide antioxidants in food.

Ludwig Jelonek - AuthorAuthorLudwig Jelonek
Ludwig Jelonek - Author
AuthorLudwig Jelonek
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Ludwik Jelonek is the author of more than 2,500 texts published on leading portals. His content has found its way into services such as Ostrovit and Kobieta Onet. At Natu.Care, Ludwik educates people in the most important area of life - health.

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Ilona Bush - Reviewed byReviewed byIlona Bush
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Ilona Bush - Reviewed by
Reviewed byIlona Bush
Master of Pharmacy

Ilona Krzak obtained her Master of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of Wrocław. She did her internship in a hospital pharmacy and in the pharmaceutical industry. She is currently working in the profession and also runs an educational profile on Instagram: @pani_z_apteki

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Antioxidants: what they are and how they work + natural examples in the diet
29 April, 2024
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Antioxidants are like firefighters putting out a fire. Only the fire in your body is not the actual fire, but free radicals. These are perishable molecules that become very dangerous if there are more of them than antioxidants.

That is why, together with Ilona Krzak, MSc, pharmacist, and clinical nutritionist, Julia Skrajda, we will present you with the most important information about antioxidants and suggesta good fire extinguisher (their sources in the diet).

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From this article you will learn:

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  • What antioxidants are and which are the best ones.
  • How antioxidants work.
  • How antioxidants work.
  • .
  • What foods there are antioxidants in.
  • How antioxidants work.
  • What are good dietary supplements with antioxidants.
  • .

See also:

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What are antioxidants?

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Antioxidants (or antioxidants or antioxidants) are chemical compounds that protect the body's cells from the damaging effects of free radicals. Free radicals are intractable molecules that are led to by UV radiation, environmental pollutants or alcohol consumption or smoking, among other thingsand.

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Antioxidants are substances that can repair damage caused by oxidative stress, prevent it or delay it.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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What are the most powerful antioxidants?

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There are several hundred, and probably several thousand (research to determine the number is still ongoing) different antioxidants. Therefore, there is no specific list of the best antioxidants. However, below you will find a few that are particularly important for your body.

Strong antioxidants areand:

  • ascorbic acid (vitamin C),
  • .
  • tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E),
  • carotenoids (astaxanthin, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin),
  • .
  • ellagic acid,
  • .
  • ferulic acid,
  • .
  • anthocyanins,
  • .
  • glutathione acid,
  • .
  • exogenous polyphenols (catechins, procyanidins, resveratrol, curcumin),
  • .
  • coenzyme Q10,
  • .
  • flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, lysine).
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The best antioxidants are vitamins A, C, D and E. Carotenoids, flavonoids, organic acids and selenium are also very effective.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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Which antioxidant is best?

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There is no single best antioxidant. The effectiveness of these compounds depends on your body's needs. What's more, they all work together like your own army against free radicals.

Despite this, many experts say that astaxanthin is the best antioxidant. Compared to other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol or beta-carotene, astaxanthin has a higher efficacy against free radicalsand.

There is work by scientists suggesting that we can consider astaxanthin to be the most potent antioxidant available in nature, but remember that scientific research is still ongoing and knowledge is developing all the time.

Why are antioxidants important for the body's health?

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When there is a preponderance of free radicals over antioxidants in the body, oxidative stress occurs. This is a dangerous condition manifested by, among other things, fatigue and concentration problemsand.

Antioxidants neutralise free radicals by donating an electron to them, which stabilises them and prevents further damage to cells. Antioxidants can be natural (found in fruits, vegetables, herbs) or synthetic (produced in laboratories)and.

Antioxidants can be natural (found in fruits, vegetables, herbs) or synthetic (produced in laboratories)and.

What are the types of antioxidants?

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Antioxidants are divided into exogenous (externally derived from the diet or supplements) and endogenous (produced naturally by the body). Exogenous include vitamins A, C, E polyphenols and carotenoids. Endogenous include enzymes, glutathione, uric acid, bilirubin and melatonin.

Exogenous antioxidants

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Exogenous antioxidants come from diet and supplements. They include vitamins (A, C, E), polyphenols (in tea, fruit, vegetables), which have powerful antioxidant properties, and carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, astaxanthin) key to protecting lipids and cell membranesand.

Endogenous antioxidants

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Endogenous antioxidants are substances produced by the body to protect cells from damage. They include enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), as well as glutathione, uric acid, bilirubin or melatonin, which protect against free radical damageand.

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What are lipophilic antioxidants?

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Lipophilic antioxidants are substances whose chemical structure allows them to dissolve in fats and lipids. This makes them particularly effective in protecting cell membranes composed of lipids. Examples of lipophilic antioxidants include vitamin E and carotenoids.

Antioxidants - effects

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Antioxidants exhibit numerous health-promoting properties. They are crucial for the body to function properly, and a lack of them leads to serious problems. How do antioxidants work?

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Neutralise free radicals

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Antioxidants protect the body from the damaging effects of free radicals. By neutralising free radicals, antioxidants minimise cell damage inside the body. By doing so, they also prevent cardiovascular or nervous system problemsand.

Protect against disease

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Regular consumption of antioxidants in food can help reduce the risk of various conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease .

Improve immune system function

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Antioxidants can support the immune system, helping to fight infections and pathogenic microorganismsand. The result is better immune protection and, therefore, a lower likelihood of infection.

Slow down the ageing process

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Because free radicals contribute to cellular damage and reduced function in selected tissues, an adequate supply of antioxidants helps delay the ageing process at the cellular leveland.

Prevent UV damage

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Antioxidants such as vitamin C and E protect the skin from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (use screen creams!), reducing the risk of sunburn. They also reduce photo-ageing and promote skin healthand.

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Sunscreens usually contain antioxidant substances that stabilise the formula and provide additional protection against oxidative stress mediated by UV radiation. Antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, oxothiazolidine, ferulic acid (and its derivatives), ectoin and niacinamide are used in cosmetics with UV filters.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Accelerate recovery after exercise

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The action of antioxidants contributes to the reduction of cellular damage and accelerates muscle recovery processes after intense exercise. This is particularly important for physically active peopleand.

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Regular physical activity supports the fight against oxidative stress. I would point out, however, that too much exercise combined with a lack of adequate recovery is something that free radicals are very fond of.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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Exercise itself has antioxidant effects by enhancing endogenous antioxidant defence mechanisms. In pathological conditions such as diabetes and cancer, this endogenous antioxidant effect is probably the most effective health-promoting mechanism.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Dietary antioxidants

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Rich sources of natural antioxidants include fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, spices, beverages and other foods. A healthy diet is your greatest weapon in the fight against oxidative stress. See the table below for a list of examples of antioxidants.

Type of food

Products rich in antioxidantsand

Fruits

  • Berries
  • Strawberries
  • Rubberries
  • Blueberries
  • Aronia
  • Granates
  • Plums

Vegetables

  • Broccoli
  • Spinach
  • Kale
  • Red cabbage
  • Carrots
  • Tomatoes
  • Onions

Nuts and seeds

  • Walnuts
  • .
  • Almonds
  • Nut kernels
  • Nut kernels
  • Flaxseeds
  • Flaxseeds
  • Sunflower seeds
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • .
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Sesame seeds
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • .
  • Sesame
  • .

Cereals, legumes, sprouts

  • Chickpeas
  • Lentils
  • Fasola
  • Barley
  • .
  • Oatmeal
  • .
  • Broccoli sprouts
  • Radish sprouts
  • .

Preparations

  • Curcuma
  • Cinnamon
  • Ginger
  • Cloves
  • Oregano
  • Allspice
  • Rosemary
  • .

Beverages

  • Coffee
  • Black tea
  • Red wine
  • Green tea
  • Cocoa
  • White tea
  • Lemon water
  • .

Fungi

  • Reishi
  • Shiitake
  • Cordyceps
  • Maitake
  • Brazil agaricus
  • Eating pepper
  • Chaga

Other

  • Bitter chocolate (containing at least 70% cocoa)
  • .
  • Seafood
  • .
  • Olive oil
  • .
  • Flaxseed oil
  • .

When planning your menu, try to include the variety of products in this table. A diet rich in antioxidants supports the body and helps to fight free radicals.

Is coffee a good antioxidant?

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Yes, coffee can be considered a good antioxidant. The beverage contains many biologically active compounds that have potential antioxidant properties. Among these are chlorogenic acids, kahweic acid, ferulic acid or trolox, which have been shown to have the ability to eliminate free radicals.

Dietary tips to consume more antioxidants

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Products with antioxidants you already know, but how can you easily sneak them into your daily diet? Here are some dietary tips that can help you:

  • Eat plenty of vegetables and fruit. Try to consume at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables every day. Choose produce with intense colours as they often contain more antioxidants.
  • Diversity is key. Follow the "rainbow on the plate" principle and add at least 3 different colours to each meal. A variety of colours translates into a variety of foods, which will allow you to increase your intake of different antioxidants.
  • Storage. Choose produce that is fresh and store it well, as antioxidants can degrade.
  • .
  • Cooking. Prepare meals using heat treatment techniques that do not oxidise antioxidants, such as steaming, braising or baking.
  • consume nuts and seeds. Nuts and seeds are a rich source of antioxidants. Add them to salads, smoothies and muesli, as well as oatmeal for flavour and crunch.
  • Consume nuts and seeds.
  • Incorporate herbs and spices. Cloves, curcumin, cinnamon and other spices are high in antioxidants. Add them to your dishes for improved flavour and health benefits.
  • Don't forget tea. Drink green and black tea regularly. Tea is a rich source of antioxidants and can replace other beverages.
  • Don't forget tea.
  • Moderate alcohol consumption. Red wine contains resveratrol, which has antioxidant properties.
  • Take adequate amounts of vitamins. Remember that vitamins, such as vitamin C and E, act as antioxidants, so make sure you're getting enough of them.

By incorporating these tips into your daily life, you will easily increase your intake of antioxidants, which will help maintain a healthy body.

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Fresh basil or parsley leaves are great for improving flavour, but also provide valuable antioxidants.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Antioxidants in cosmetics - examples

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Antioxidants are commonly used in cosmetics to protect the skin from free radical damage and UV radiation, as well as from premature ageing. Here are some of the most potent antioxidants in cosmetics:

  • Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) - promotes the production of collagen, lightens discolouration and improves the overall appearance of the skinand.
  • Vitamin E (tocopherol) - moisturises the skin, provides sun protection and synergises with vitamin C .
  • .
  • Vitamin A (retinol) - an anti-ageing nutrient that reduces wrinkles, improves skin texture and stimulates collagen synthesis .
  • Ferulic acid - enhances the effects of vitamins C and E, protecting skin from UV radiation and pollution (don't forget screen creams) .
  • Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) - neutralises free radicals, reduces wrinkles and helps with cellular energy production .
  • Green tea extract - rich in polyphenols, which have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects and protect against UV radiation .
  • .
  • Resveratrol - an antioxidant derived from red wine, which delays skin ageingand.
  • .
  • Niacinamide (vitamin B3) - reduces hyperpigmentation, soothes redness and stimulates ceramide production to improve skin elasticity .
  • Astaxanthin - an antioxidant derived from the alga Haematococcus pluvialis, which has powerful anti-ageing and anti-inflammatory properties .
  • .
  • Hyaluronic acid - a major component of the intercellular space-filling substance that maintains skin hydration and elasticity .

Remember to pay attention to the ingredients in your cosmetics. This will help you choose the right product for your skin type and needs. If in doubt, consult a dermatologist or cosmetologist.

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Supplements with antioxidants

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Antioxidant tablets will allow you to replenish missing nutrients. With these supplements, you will combat dangerous oxidative stress faster.

The most powerful antioxidant

ALINESS Natural Astaxanthin

ALINESS Natural Astaxanthin
4.9
  • Active ingredients: astaxanthin
  • .
  • Dosage: 1 capsule daily with a meal
  • .
  • Packaging size: 60 capsules
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
See price
in the Empik shop
Product description

A very simple dietary supplement containing only one ingredient. This is astaxanthin, which, according to preliminary studies, is considered to be the most powerful antioxidant. This ingredient belongs to the group of carotenoidsós and has been shown to support the immune system and to have a beneficial effect on the skinós condition.

Astaxanthin is a simple dietary supplement containing only one ingredient.

Pros and cons

A very simple dietary supplement containing only one ingredient. This is astaxanthin, which, according to preliminary studies, is considered to be the most powerful antioxidant. This ingredient belongs to the group of carotenoidsós and has been shown to support the immune system and to have a beneficial effect on the skinós condition.

Astaxanthin is a simple dietary supplement containing only one ingredient.

Additional information

A very simple dietary supplement containing only one ingredient. This is astaxanthin, which, according to preliminary studies, is considered to be the most powerful antioxidant. This ingredient belongs to the group of carotenoidsós and has been shown to support the immune system and to have a beneficial effect on the skinós condition.

Astaxanthin is a simple dietary supplement containing only one ingredient.

Expert opinion

A very simple dietary supplement containing only one ingredient. This is astaxanthin, which, according to preliminary studies, is considered to be the most powerful antioxidant. This ingredient belongs to the group of carotenoidsós and has been shown to support the immune system and to have a beneficial effect on the skinós condition.

Astaxanthin is a simple dietary supplement containing only one ingredient.

A collection of powerful antioxidants

Solgar Advanced Antioxidant Formula

Solgar Advanced Antioxidant Formula
4.9
  • Active ingredients: vitamin C, vitamin E, L-cysteine, vitamin B2, selenium, manganese, plant complex and others
  • .
  • Dosage: 1 capsule daily
  • .
  • Packaging size: 60 capsules
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
See price
in the Empik shop
Product description

Advanced Antioxidant Formula from Solgar is a dietary supplement consisting of numerous antioxidantsów. In addition to vitamins, the formula also contains plant extracts and minerals in its composition. Antioxidant protection from Solgar can effectively support the fight against free radicals.

Pros and cons

Advanced Antioxidant Formula from Solgar is a dietary supplement consisting of numerous antioxidantsów. In addition to vitamins, the formula also contains plant extracts and minerals in its composition. Antioxidant protection from Solgar can effectively support the fight against free radicals.

Additional information

Advanced Antioxidant Formula from Solgar is a dietary supplement consisting of numerous antioxidantsów. In addition to vitamins, the formula also contains plant extracts and minerals in its composition. Antioxidant protection from Solgar can effectively support the fight against free radicals.

Vegan antioxidants

ALINESS PQQ

ALINESS PQQ
4.8
  • Active ingredients: PQQ, coenzyme Q10.
  • .
  • Dosage:1 capsule daily
  • .
  • Package size: 60 capsules
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Empik shop
Product description

A simple dietary supplement with two active ingredients. Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin-like compound thatóry supports the creation of energy in the cells. On the other hand, PQQ, or pyrroloquinolinquinone, is one of the more powerful antioxidantsów. It supports nervous system function, memory, concentration and cognitive function.
PQQ and coenzyme Q10 act synergistically, thus having a more beneficial effect on the body.

Pros and cons

A simple dietary supplement with two active ingredients. Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin-like compound thatóry supports the creation of energy in the cells. On the other hand, PQQ, or pyrroloquinolinquinone, is one of the more powerful antioxidantsów. It supports nervous system function, memory, concentration and cognitive function.
PQQ and coenzyme Q10 act synergistically, thus having a more beneficial effect on the body.

Additional information

A simple dietary supplement with two active ingredients. Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin-like compound thatóry supports the creation of energy in the cells. On the other hand, PQQ, or pyrroloquinolinquinone, is one of the more powerful antioxidantsów. It supports nervous system function, memory, concentration and cognitive function.
PQQ and coenzyme Q10 act synergistically, thus having a more beneficial effect on the body.

Efficient packaging

NOW FOODS Beta-Carotene 15 mg

NOW FOODS Beta-Carotene 15 mg
4.8
  • Active ingredients: Vitamin A (beta-carotene), vitamin E, soy lecithin
  • .
  • Dosage: 1 capsule daily
  • .
  • Package size: 180 capsules
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 180 days
  • .
See price
in the Ceneo shop
Product description

Vitamin antioxidants in the form of beta-carotene and vitamin E. The formula particularlyólly supports the health of the skinóry, preventing its ageing. It also has a positive effect on overall antioxidant protection, vision health, weakened immunity and hairós condition.

Antioxidants from NOW FOODS also include soy lecithin, whichóra supports nervous system and brain function and improves memory and concentration.

Pros and cons

Vitamin antioxidants in the form of beta-carotene and vitamin E. The formula particularlyólly supports the health of the skinóry, preventing its ageing. It also has a positive effect on overall antioxidant protection, vision health, weakened immunity and hairós condition.

Antioxidants from NOW FOODS also include soy lecithin, whichóra supports nervous system and brain function and improves memory and concentration.

Additional information

Vitamin antioxidants in the form of beta-carotene and vitamin E. The formula particularlyólly supports the health of the skinóry, preventing its ageing. It also has a positive effect on overall antioxidant protection, vision health, weakened immunity and hairós condition.

Antioxidants from NOW FOODS also include soy lecithin, whichóra supports nervous system and brain function and improves memory and concentration.

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The beneficial effects of antioxidants are undoubted in pathological cases (e.g. antioxidant deficiency), but everything in moderation. Excessive supplementation with antioxidants can be dangerous.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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See also:

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Summary

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  • Antioxidants are chemical compounds that protect the body's cells from the effects of free radicals.
  • Antioxidants are the chemical compounds that protect the body's cells from the effects of free radicals.
  • The most potent antioxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids.
  • .
  • Antioxidants neutralise free radicals, protect against disease, improve immune system function and slow down the ageing process.
  • .
  • The highest levels of antioxidants are found in spinach, blueberries and dark chocolate.
  • .
  • Antioxidants can be found in cosmetics (e.g. vitamin A, vitamin C or vitamin E).
  • .
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FAQ

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. What helps with oxidative stress?.

Above all, a healthy lifestyle can help with oxidative stress. Follow these recommendations to reduce free radicals in the body:

  • Stay on a diet rich in antioxidants: fruits, vegetables, nuts.
  • Get a diet rich in antioxidants: fruits, vegetables, nuts.
  • Avoid harmful agents: tobacco smoke, alcohol, processed foods.
  • Avoid the following.
  • Use supplements: vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10.
  • Exercise actively: exercise regularly.
  • .
  • Manage stress: meditation, yoga, relaxation techniques.
  • .
  • Take care of sleep hygiene: 7-9 hours of sleep per day.

Reduce oxidative stress, protect cells and support body health.

. What herbs for oxidative stress?.

The best herbs for oxidative stress are:

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  • Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba): improves blood flow, protects nerve cells.
  • Ashwagandha: adaptogen, which relieves stress, has anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Curcumin: contains curcumin, counteracts free radicals and provides antioxidant protection.

Incorporate these herbs into your diet to protect your body from oxidative stress and improve overall vitality. Consult your doctor before taking supplements.

. What foods have antioxidants in them?.

Good sources of antioxidants include fruits, vegetables, nuts and beverages. Examples of specific products include:

  • Fruits: berries, strawberries, raspberries, grapes
  • .
  • Vegetables: spinach, broccoli, red peppers
  • .
  • Nuts: walnuts, almonds, pumpkin seeds
  • .
  • Beverages: green tea, red wine, pomegranate juice
  • .

Drinking antioxidants neutralises free radicals, supports the immune system and delays the ageing process.

. What is a powerful antioxidant?.

One of the most potent antioxidants is considered to be astaxanthin. Consider taking supplements with this ingredient and, above all, eat foods rich in astaxanthin, such as salmon, shrimp and crawfish. Astaxanthin protects cells from free radical damage, reduces inflammation and improves skin condition.

. What fruits contain antioxidants?.

Fruits are very good sources of antioxidants. The best sources are:

  • berries: blueberries, blackberries, strawberries,
  • .
  • citrus: grapefruit, oranges, lemons,
  • .
  • granates,
  • .
  • cherries,
  • .
  • kiwi,
  • .

Antioxidants present in the fruit fight free radicals, support the immune system and contribute to body health.

. Are oxidants healthy?.

Avoid excess oxidants as this can lead to oxidative stress and cell damage. Oxidants neutralise antioxidants, so keep a balance between the two. Examples of factors that increase free radicals (oxidants) include smoking, alcohol consumption or overexposure to sunlight.

. Which tea has the most antioxidants?.

Choose green tea as it has the most antioxidants of all types of tea. Antioxidants, such as catechins, in green tea counteract free radicals and have anti-cancer effects.

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Sources

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. See all.

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Epel, E. S., Blackburn, E. H., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F. S., Adler, N. E., Morrow, J. D., & Cawthon, R. M. (2004). Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(49), 17312-17315. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0407162101

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Furukawa, S., Fujita, T., Shimabukuro, M., Iwaki, M., Yamada, Y., Nakajima, Y., Nakayama, O., Makishima, M., Matsuda, M., & Shimomura, I. (2017). Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 114(12), 1752-1761. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI21625

Gosalbes, M. J., Llop, S., Vallès, Y., Moya, A., Ballester, F., & Francino, M. P. (2013). Meconium microbiota types dominated by lactic acid or enteric bacteria are differentially associated with maternal eczema and respiratory problems in infants. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 43(2), 198-211. https://doi.org/10.1111/cea.12063

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IJMS | Free Full-Text | The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases. (n.d.). Retrieved 17 May 2023, from https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/11/25942

Imlay, J. A. (2019). Where in the world do bacteria experience oxidative stress? Environmental Microbiology, 21(2), 521-530. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14445

Increased Nitrosative and Oxidative Stress in Platelets of Migraine Patients. (n.d.). Retrieved 17 May 2023, from https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/211/1/211_1_23/_article

Jakubczyk, K., Drużga, A., Katarzyna, J., & Skonieczna-Żydecka, K. (2020). Antioxidant Potential of Curcumin-A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Antioxidants, 9(11), 1092. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111092

Mancini, R. S., Wang, Y., & Weaver, D. F. (2018). Phenylindanes in Brewed Coffee Inhibit Amyloid-Beta and Tau Aggregation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2018.00735

Marseglia, L., Manti, S., D'Angelo, G., Nicotera, A., Parisi, E., Di Rosa, G., Gitto, E., & Arrigo, T. (2015). Oxidative Stress in Obesity: A Critical Component in Human Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010378

McKay, D. L., & Blumberg, J. B. (2002). The Role of Tea in Human Health: An Update. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 21(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2002.10719187

Peters, A., Veronesi, B., Calderón-Garcidueñas, L., Gehr, P., Chen, L. C., Geiser, M., Reed, W., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Schürch, S., & Schulz, H. (2006). Translocation and potential neurological effects of fine and ultrafine particles a critical update. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 3(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-3-13

Petruk, G., Del Giudice, R., Rigano, M. M., & Monti, D. M. (2018). Antioxidants from Plants Protect against Skin Photoaging. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2018, e1454936. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1454936

Pizzino, G., Irrera, N., Cucinotta, M., Pallio, G., Mannino, F., Arcoraci, V., Squadrito, F., Altavilla, D., & Bitto, A. (2017). Oxidative Stress: Harms and Benefits for Human Health. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2017, 8416763. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8416763

Rad, N. R., Movahedian, A., Feizi, A., Aminorroaya, A., & Aarabi, M. H. (2022b). Antioxidant effects of astaxanthin and metformin combined therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17(2), 219. https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.335179

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