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Vitamin B12 - properties, deficiency, supplementation

Adequate vitamin B12 concentrations guarantee a range of health-promoting benefits - check which ones!

Nina Wawryszuk - AuthorAuthorNina Wawryszuk
Nina Wawryszuk - Author
AuthorNina Wawryszuk
Natu.Care Editor

Nina Wawryszuk specialises in sports supplementation, strength training and psychosomatics. On a daily basis, in addition to writing articles for Natu.Care, as a personal trainer she helps athletes improve their performance through training, diet and supplementation.

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Alexandra Cudna-Bartnicka - Reviewed byReviewed byAlexandra Cudna-Bartnicka
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Alexandra Cudna-Bartnicka - Reviewed by
Reviewed byAlexandra Cudna-Bartnicka
Clinical nutritionist

Clinical nutritionist whose main area of interest is nutrition in diseases and functional disorders of the digestive system.

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Michael Tomaszewski - Edited byEdited byMichael Tomaszewski
Michael Tomaszewski - Edited by
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Graduate of Journalism and Artes Liberales at the University of Warsaw. Since 2017, he has been working with the biggest portals in Poland and abroad as an editor. Previously worked for 3 years in one of the leading pharmaceutical companies - he knows the health and beauty industry inside out. In his free time, he most enjoys playing tennis or skiing.

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Vitamin B12 - properties, deficiency, supplementation
29 April, 2024
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Are you familiar with the term 'dirt vitamin'? This is the term used to describe vitamin B12, a cobalamin. Bacteria living in the digestive tract of animals are mainly responsible for its production. In humans, it is formed in symbiosis with the bacterial flora of the large intestine.

Did you know that correct levels of vitamin B12 can protect you from dementia? Do you know the other amazing qualities of cobalamin? Together with nutritionist Alexandra Cudna, we'll show you the most important properties of this vitamin and how to supplement it safely.

The following is an overview of the benefits of this vitamin.

.

Description of contents:

.
  1. Vitamin B12 - what is it?
  2. .
  3. Properties of vitamin B12
  4. .
  5. Where is vitamin B12 found?
  6. .
  7. B12 deficiency - symptoms
  8. .
  9. B12 excess - symptoms
  10. .
  11. Supplementation of vitamin B12
  12. .
  13. Dosing
  14. .
  15. Interactions with medications
  16. .
  17. How to improve B12 absorption
  18. .
  19. Vitamin B12 a breeding ground for cancer? Controversy
  20. Summary
  21. .
.
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Product with high-quality folic acid Quatrefolic®, bamboo shoot extract and ingredients that have a positive effect on skin, hair and nails.

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Sleep Well - a dietary supplement for good sleep and calmness

Sleep Well - dietary supplement for good sleep and tranquillity

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Sleep Well is a calming and relaxing dietary supplement with a standardised complex of CALMOMIX® herbal extracts and high-quality magnesium.

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 See also:

.

Vitamin B12 - what is it?

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Vitamin B12 is one of the B vitamins, or water-soluble precursors of coenzymes.It is also known as cobalamin because it has cobalt as its central atom. In our body, it regulates the production of erythrocytes. The main source of this vitamin is animal products. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes anaemia. 

There are 8 B vitamins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin, PP)B5 (pantothenic acid)B6 (pyrodixin)B7 (biotin)B9 (folic acid)B12 (cobalamin). Want to know more about each vitamin? Click on its name.

Properties - what does vitamin B12 help with?

.

Neural system:

.
  • Vitamin B12 is essential for the normal function of the nervous systemand. It plays an important role in maintaining the sheaths that protect the nerves of the central and peripheral nervous system, ensuring the rapid and efficient transmission of nerve impulses.
  • .
  • Acts in synergy with vitamins B1 and B6 to reduce, among other things, neuropathic painand which arises from damage to the nervous system.
  • It is important for DNA synthesis  and provides structural stability to important regions of chromosomes.
  • Play an important role in the production of chemicals  in the brain that affect mood, among other things. Research suggests  that low serum levels of vitamin B12 play a role in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

Psychology:

.
  • The effect of vitamin B12 on mood is not yet fully understood. However, B12 is needed for the production of serotonin, which is responsible for mood regulation. Adequate concentrations of B12 may have a positive effect on moodand in people with an existing deficiency.
  • The following is a review.
  • Based on researchand it has been concluded that there is no specific evidence for a positive effect of vitamin B12 on depression or symptoms of depression. However, it is worth noting that lower levels of vitamin B12 in the body are associated with a higher risk of developing depression.

Cardiovascular system: 

.
  • Participates in red blood cell formationand. Low levels of B12 reduce red blood cell production, causing anemia megaloblastic.
  • May improve heart health by reducing homocysteineand. High levels of homocysteine in the blood are linked to an increased risk of heart disease.

Bone system:

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  • May support bone health and prevent osteoporosisand. One interesting study found that people with vitamin B12 deficiency had lower-than-normal bone mineral density (leading to brittle bones).

Pregnancy:

.
  • Adequate levels of vitamin B12 are key to a healthy pregnancyand. Prevents birth defects of the brain and spinal cord in the developing baby.

Escalation:

.
  • Can reduce the risk of macular degenerationand, the most important central part of the retina that is responsible for clear, sharp vision.

Hair, skin, nails:

.
  • B12 affects the good condition of our hair, skin and nails. Low levels can cause a variety of dermatological symptomsand, including: skin discolouration, acne, inflammation and cracking of the corners of the mouth.

Where is vitamin B12 found?

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You will get vitamin B12 from foods of animal origin that have it naturally, as well as from products fortified with the vitamin.

Sources of vitamin B12

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Vitamin B12 is found in the following foodsand:

  • beef liver, veal liver, chicken liver,
  • .
  • beef (without shell),
  • .
  • tuna,
  • .
  • Atlantic salmon,
  • .
  • herring,
  • .
  • mackerel,
  • .
  • beef,
  • .
  • milk from 2% fat,
  • .
  • yoghurt,
  • .
  • cheese: cheddar, gjetost, mozzarella, tilsit, feta, brie, Swiss cheese, gouda, ricotta,
  • .
  • indica,
  • .
  • egg yolk,
  • .
  • enriched yeast,
  • .

Have these ingredients in your menu?

.

In which fruits and vegetables is vitamin B12 found?

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Vitamin B12 is not found in fruit and vegetables, hence vegans and vegetarians are particularly at risk of deficiency.

B12 deficiency - symptoms

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Vitamin B12 affects many of our systems in the body, and a deficiency produces a wide range of symptoms. I write more about deficiency, its causes, manifestations and treatment in the article on vitamin B12 deficiency.

Symptoms of B12 deficiency:

.

Neural system: 

.
  • headaches and dizzinessand,
  • .
  • fogginess of mind, concentration problems,
  • .
  • weakness, muscle pain and fatigue,
  • .
  • disorders of the sensory organs, especially touchand,
  • .
  • paresthesias (numbness, tingling, burning) ,
  • ataxia (reduced coordination of movements and difficulty maintaining balance) ,
  • .

Cardiovascular system:

.

Deficiency leads to anemia (anemia) megaloblastic manifesting as:

  • dizziness, 
  • .
  • pallor, 
  • .
  • spiration, 
  • .
  • weakness, 
  • .
  • fast heart rate, 
  • .

Digestive system:

.
  • constipation or diarrhoeaand,
  • .
  • loss of appetite,
  • .
  • nausea,
  • .
  • weight loss,
  • .
  • taste disturbanceand,
  • .
  • stomatitis with ulceration and inflammation,
  • .
  • swelling, burning and redness of the tongue 

Psychics:

.
  • lower mood ,
  • .
  • mood changes ,
  • symptoms depressive symptoms,
  • .
  • problems with concentration and memory .

Results:

.
  • visual impairment .
  • .

skin, hair, nails:

.
  • yellowish colour skin ,
  • .
  • breakage and hair loss,
  • breakage, splitting and pigmentation changes on nailsand.
  • .

Libido:

.
  • Erectile dysfunction as a result of increased levels of homocysteine in the body .
.
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Glow Stories - for healthy skin, hair and nails

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Product with high-quality folic acid Quatrefolic®, bamboo shoot extract and ingredients that have a positive effect on skin, hair and nails.

See more
Sleep Well - a dietary supplement for good sleep and calmness

Sleep Well - dietary supplement for good sleep and tranquillity

.

Sleep Well is a calming and relaxing dietary supplement with a standardised complex of CALMOMIX® herbal extracts and high-quality magnesium.

See more
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B12 overdose - symptoms

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Is it possible to overdose on vitamin B12? Fortunately, this is a rare situation. Consuming foods rich in vitamin B12 does not cause harmful effects. Excess cobalamin is excreted in the urineand

Medicine notes cases where there is hypervitaminosis of vitamin B12 (concentrations above 1000 pg/ml) in plasma, and this can be indicative of serious disease processesand, such as acute renal failure or hepatic disease.

Some interesting studies have shown that high doses of vitamin B12 can lead to acne and rosaceaand (redness and pus-filled nodules on the face). Most of these studies have focused on high-dose cobalamin injections rather than oral supplements.

There is also evidence to suggest that high doses of vitamin B12 may lead to adverse health effects in people with diabetes or kidney diseaseand

Best vitamin B12 - ranking

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Dr. Jacob's B12 Active! under the tongue

Dr. Jacob's B12 Active! under the tongue
5.0
  • Active ingredients: vitamin B12
  • Form: tablets under the tongue
  • .
  • Packaging: 120 tablets
  • .
  • Dose: 1 tablet per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 4 months
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

B12 Active! is a sublingual tablet – the vitamin is already absorbed in the mouth directly into the bloodstream and is immediately metabolised by the body. It is bioactive and has a long stable duration. It is particularly recommended for people on a meat-free diet, due to the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Pros and cons

B12 Active! is a sublingual tablet – the vitamin is already absorbed in the mouth directly into the bloodstream and is immediately metabolised by the body. It is bioactive and has a long stable duration. It is particularly recommended for people on a meat-free diet, due to the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Additional information

B12 Active! is a sublingual tablet – the vitamin is already absorbed in the mouth directly into the bloodstream and is immediately metabolised by the body. It is bioactive and has a long stable duration. It is particularly recommended for people on a meat-free diet, due to the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

User review

B12 Active! is a sublingual tablet – the vitamin is already absorbed in the mouth directly into the bloodstream and is immediately metabolised by the body. It is bioactive and has a long stable duration. It is particularly recommended for people on a meat-free diet, due to the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Dr. Jacob's B12 FORTE drops

Dr. Jacob's B12 FORTE drops
5.0
  • Active ingredients: vitamin B12
  • Form: drops under the tongue
  • .
  • Packaging: 20ml
  • Dose: 1 drop daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: year
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Vegan form of vitamin B12 in the purest, fully bioactive form of methylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin. The product comes in the form of sublingual drops thatóre already absorbed in the mouth.

B12 FORTE contains a vegan form of B12 in its purest, fully bioactive form.

B12 FORTE contains a vegan form of B12 in the purest, fully bioactive form of methylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin. The product comes in the form of sublingual drops, whichóre already absorbed in the mouth. One drop of B12 FORTE contains as much as 100 mcg of vitamin B12. The vitamin B12 used in our dietary supplement is produced in Europe (most B12 available on the market comes from China).

Pros and cons

Vegan form of vitamin B12 in the purest, fully bioactive form of methylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin. The product comes in the form of sublingual drops thatóre already absorbed in the mouth.

B12 FORTE contains a vegan form of B12 in its purest, fully bioactive form.

B12 FORTE contains a vegan form of B12 in the purest, fully bioactive form of methylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin. The product comes in the form of sublingual drops, whichóre already absorbed in the mouth. One drop of B12 FORTE contains as much as 100 mcg of vitamin B12. The vitamin B12 used in our dietary supplement is produced in Europe (most B12 available on the market comes from China).

Additional information

Vegan form of vitamin B12 in the purest, fully bioactive form of methylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin. The product comes in the form of sublingual drops thatóre already absorbed in the mouth.

B12 FORTE contains a vegan form of B12 in its purest, fully bioactive form.

B12 FORTE contains a vegan form of B12 in the purest, fully bioactive form of methylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin. The product comes in the form of sublingual drops, whichóre already absorbed in the mouth. One drop of B12 FORTE contains as much as 100 mcg of vitamin B12. The vitamin B12 used in our dietary supplement is produced in Europe (most B12 available on the market comes from China).

User review

Vegan form of vitamin B12 in the purest, fully bioactive form of methylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin. The product comes in the form of sublingual drops thatóre already absorbed in the mouth.

B12 FORTE contains a vegan form of B12 in its purest, fully bioactive form.

B12 FORTE contains a vegan form of B12 in the purest, fully bioactive form of methylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin. The product comes in the form of sublingual drops, whichóre already absorbed in the mouth. One drop of B12 FORTE contains as much as 100 mcg of vitamin B12. The vitamin B12 used in our dietary supplement is produced in Europe (most B12 available on the market comes from China).

{ product:4RWoSUB7q7GY05C8yRrllq }}

Ideal for vegans

SOLGAR natural vitamin B12

SOLGAR natural vitamin B12
5.0
  • Active ingredients: vitamin B12
  • Form: tablets 
  • .
  • Packaging: 100 tablets
  • .
  • Dose: 1 tablet daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 100 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement is a source of valuable vitamin B12 in a form that is easily absorbed by humans - cyanocobalamin. This biologically active form of vitamin B12 has many very important protective functions for the body.

Vitamin B12 supports the functioning of the immune system. It also contributes to reducing feelings of fatigue and tiredness. Its important function is also to take part in the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid thatós naturally formed in the human body. 

Vitamin B12 is a very important protective function.

Pros and cons

The dietary supplement is a source of valuable vitamin B12 in a form that is easily absorbed by humans - cyanocobalamin. This biologically active form of vitamin B12 has many very important protective functions for the body.

Vitamin B12 supports the functioning of the immune system. It also contributes to reducing feelings of fatigue and tiredness. Its important function is also to take part in the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid thatós naturally formed in the human body. 

Vitamin B12 is a very important protective function.

Additional information

The dietary supplement is a source of valuable vitamin B12 in a form that is easily absorbed by humans - cyanocobalamin. This biologically active form of vitamin B12 has many very important protective functions for the body.

Vitamin B12 supports the functioning of the immune system. It also contributes to reducing feelings of fatigue and tiredness. Its important function is also to take part in the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid thatós naturally formed in the human body. 

Vitamin B12 is a very important protective function.

User review

The dietary supplement is a source of valuable vitamin B12 in a form that is easily absorbed by humans - cyanocobalamin. This biologically active form of vitamin B12 has many very important protective functions for the body.

Vitamin B12 supports the functioning of the immune system. It also contributes to reducing feelings of fatigue and tiredness. Its important function is also to take part in the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid thatós naturally formed in the human body. 

Vitamin B12 is a very important protective function.

For sucking

Dr Jacob's Melatonin + B12

Dr Jacob's Melatonin + B12
4.8
  • Active ingredients: melatoninvitamin B12
  • Form: sucking pastilles
  • .
  • Dosage: 1 lozenge per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
Product description

Sweet pleasures in the evening are rather forbidden. Well, unless it's cherry lozenges with melatonin and vitamin B12, whichóre going to improve the quality of your sleep.

One tablet in the evening will shorten your sleep time and stop you waking up.

One tablet in the evening will shortenóyour time to fall asleep and stop you waking up during the night. The addition of vitamin B12 will improve the functioning of the nervous system, making you even better rested.

The following tablets will help to improve the quality of your sleep.

Pros and cons

Sweet pleasures in the evening are rather forbidden. Well, unless it's cherry lozenges with melatonin and vitamin B12, whichóre going to improve the quality of your sleep.

One tablet in the evening will shorten your sleep time and stop you waking up.

One tablet in the evening will shortenóyour time to fall asleep and stop you waking up during the night. The addition of vitamin B12 will improve the functioning of the nervous system, making you even better rested.

The following tablets will help to improve the quality of your sleep.

Additional information

Sweet pleasures in the evening are rather forbidden. Well, unless it's cherry lozenges with melatonin and vitamin B12, whichóre going to improve the quality of your sleep.

One tablet in the evening will shorten your sleep time and stop you waking up.

One tablet in the evening will shortenóyour time to fall asleep and stop you waking up during the night. The addition of vitamin B12 will improve the functioning of the nervous system, making you even better rested.

The following tablets will help to improve the quality of your sleep.

User review

Sweet pleasures in the evening are rather forbidden. Well, unless it's cherry lozenges with melatonin and vitamin B12, whichóre going to improve the quality of your sleep.

One tablet in the evening will shorten your sleep time and stop you waking up.

One tablet in the evening will shortenóyour time to fall asleep and stop you waking up during the night. The addition of vitamin B12 will improve the functioning of the nervous system, making you even better rested.

The following tablets will help to improve the quality of your sleep.

Supplementation of vitamin B12

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I always encourage my patients to obtain vitamins and minerals primarily from a varied diet. I recommend B12 supplementation to patients if blood tests indicate a deficiency, there is a problem obtaining vitamins from food (e.g. vegans). 
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Aleksandra Cudna.

Aleksandra CudnaDietitian

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.

It is worth going for a blood test and checking the levels of cobalamin and other B vitamins in the body. We then know the starting point and whether to act and with what strength. I have noticed that patients like to supplement without being sure of the deficiency. They swallow supplements 'to stock up', which is often unnecessary and sometimes dangerous to their health," adds the dietician.

B12 blood test

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Most commonly, determination of vitamin B12 concentrations is ordered:

.
  • persons with suspected anaemia, 
  • .
  • persons with neurological symptoms,
  • .
  • in conditions following gastrectomy,
  • .
  • in people with suspected B12 absorption problems,
  • .
  • people on vegan and vegetarian diets,
  • .
  • women planning a pregnancy,
  • .

You can do the test privately. It involves drawing blood, in the morning, on an empty stomach. You wait 1-2 days for the result. Depending on the laboratory, the test costs from PLN 39 upwards. It is advisable to buy the entire B vitamin package at the outset - the price is more favourable and the examination comprehensive. The result is related to the scope of a given laboratory.

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You may be interested in:

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Recommendations for use

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Vitamin B12 is needed by everyone. And who in particular should pay attention to its correct concentration (and why)?

Vegans and vegetarians

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People on vegan and vegetarian diets should supplement with B12, as they have no way of providing it with food. Despite the availability of cobalamin-enriched products on the market, these are still too small to cover a healthy daily requirement.

When reading the label of B12-enriched foods, check that the ingredients list includes cobalamin or cyanocobalamin. This means that there is real vitamin B12 in them.

Breastfeeding vegans and vegetarians

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.
For breastfeeding vegan and vegetarian women, much depends on the variety of diet followed and the amount of zoonotic products eliminated. For example, lactovovegetarianism eliminates red meat and poultry, but allows the consumption of dairy products, eggs, fish and seafood. 
.
Aleksandra Cudna.

Aleksandra CudnaDietitian

.
.

In such a diet, the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency is relatively low and supplementation is not necessary. In a strict vegan diet based exclusively on plant-based products, supplementation is necessary to cover the needs of both the mother and the nursing infant, adds the nutritionist.

Vitamin B12 is stored in the body and its reserves exceed the needs of an adult and are sufficient for about 2-5 years. In infants, the reserves are low, depleting after just one year. It is therefore important for breastfeeding vegans and some vegetarians to supplement vitamin B12.

People with digestive problems

.

The use of certain medications can lead to impaired absorption of vitamin B12 - this happens with indigestion or heartburn medications, for example. Also, certain diseases can cause problems with the absorption of this vitamin - e.g. coeliac disease, Crohn's disease, SIBO bacterial proliferation syndrome, or gastritis.

Several diseases can also cause problems with the absorption of this vitamin - e.g. coeliac disease, Crohn's disease, SIBO bacterial proliferation syndrome, or gastritis.

Note, people 60+ at attention!

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People over 60 should supplement with B12, as we lose the ability to absorb this vitamin as we age. Seniors should keep an eye on their B12 levels because, as we know, a deficiency can lead to the development of dementia or Alzheimer's diseaseand.

Dosage and daily requirements

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.
Setting vitamin B12 supplementation and dosage should be preceded by a blood test and a review of your diet. This is very important as B12 dosage is an individual issue depending on age, diet, active medical conditions. I usually recommend and encourage you to vary your diet permanently, and suggest supplementation as something additional.
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Aleksandra Cudna.

Aleksandra CudnaDietitian

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Daily requirement of vitamin B12 in micrograms (mcg)and:

.

Who?

Recommended daily dose

Infants up to 6 months

Individuals.

0.4 mcg

.

Children from the 7th to the 12th month

0.5 mcg

Children from 1 year to 3 years of age

0.9 mcg

Children from 4 to 6 years of age

 

Children from 7 to 9 years of age

.

1.2 mcg

 

1.8 mcg

.

Girls and boys aged 10-12 years

.

 

Girls and boys aged 13-18

.

1.8 mcg

 

.

2.4 mcg

.

Females, men

2.4 mcg

Pregnant women

2.6 mcg

Breastfeeding women

.

2.8 mcg

Interactions with drugs

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Some substances interfere with the absorption of vitamin B12and. These substances are:

  • drugs that reduce gastric acid secretion (e.g. omeprazole),
  • .
  • metformin (anti-diabetic drug), 
  • .
  • aminosalicylic acid (antitubercular drug),
  • .
  • colchicine (an anti-inflammatory drug used in the prevention and treatment of gout attacks),
  • .

Are you using the above substances? Don't worry! Your doctor may decide to change your medication or the time you take it, depending on the problems you are experiencing. 

Vitamin B12 and alcohol

.

Alcohol interferes with the absorption and storage of vitamins and minerals. It impairs the absorption of supplementation and can exacerbate deficiencies. Alcohol is not recommended, especially if tests have shown vitamin B12 deficiency, which should be treated.

How to improve B12 absorption?

.

You already know that many substances or conditions affect the absorption of cobalamin. Here is advice from a nutritionist on how to increase the amount and absorption of vitamin B12:

    .
  • Avoid stimulants - smoking, alcohol consumption, excessive amounts of coffee; 
  • .
  • Don't follow low-calorie and monotonous diets, which are often poorly nutritious.
  • Begin to diversify your diet - make sure you get an adequate supply of animal protein in your meals.
  • Take care of your diet.
  • Vitamin B12 will be absorbed better when you take it with B9 (folic acid) or calcium. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and B7 (biotin) will work similarly.
  • .

Maybe of interest to you:

Vitamin B12 a breeding ground for cancer? Controversy

For several years there has been a debate in the medical community about the harm of long-term supplementation with vitamin B12 in high dosesand. Some scientific papers suggest an effect of cobalamin on cancer development. Before you worry - let me reassure you. As it is in medicine, you need to read the sources carefully and cite the facts.

Two interesting studies found a correlation between long-term intake of high doses of vitamin B12 and an increased risk of cancers such as colorectal/perianal cancer and lung cancerand. However, the study refers to the use of high doses, over a very long period of time. 

Absolutely does not mean that we should be afraid of vitamin B12 capsules or foods. If we want to supplement B12 safely and healthily, let us follow two sensible rules:

  • Let's supplement if we are deficient (let's do tests) or have an increased need.
  • Let's not supplement.
  • Don't take supplements to save money, "for your health". - let's take the doses your doctor prescribes.
  • Supplement if you have a deficiency or an increased need.

See also:

.

Summary

.

From this article remember:

.
  • Vitamin B12 keeps our nervous system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, bone system in good shape.
  • Vitamin B12 is a common deficiency.
  • His deficiency is a common problem, but a varied diet and sensible supplementation can protect us from its unpleasant effects.
  • We encourage you and your nutritionist to have blood tests before starting supplementation.
  • .

FAQ

.
. How does vitamin B12 deficiency manifest itself?.

Vitamin B12 deficiency gives signs from various systems in the body. The most common symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are:

 

  • fatigue and lack of energy,
  • .
  • painful and red tongue,
  • .
  • mouth ulcers,
  • .
  • incapacitations,
  • hepatitis.
  • weakening of muscles,
  • .
  • problems with vision,
  • depression of mood,
  • decreased mood.
  • lower mood,
  • .
  • disorientation,
  • .
  • problems with memory, comprehension and judgement,
  • .
  • poor condition of hair, skin and nails,
  • .
. What does vitamin B12 do?.

Vitamin B12 supports the production of red blood cells, brain and overall nervous system function and metabolism. It is essential for the health of the skin, hair and nails, as well as the cardiovascular and immune systems.

. Where is the most vitamin B12 found?.

The best dietary sources of vitamin B12 are of animal origin and include beef liver, veal liver, chicken liver, clams (without shells), tuna, Atlantic salmon, herring, mackerel, beef, milk from 2% fat and above, cheeses (e.g. cheddar, mozzarella), turkey, egg yolk. Vitamin B12 is not found in fruit and vegetables.

. Who should take vitamin B12?.

Vitamin B12 is particularly important for people on a vegan or vegetarian diet, as well as those with nutrient absorption disorders (e.g. SIBO, coeliac disease). B12 supplementation is also recommended for people who take stomach juice antacids, people over 60 years of age and people with eating disorders.

. How long can you take vitamin B12?.

Vitamin B12 can even be taken daily if this is the recommendation of your doctor, who will decide on supplementation based on your health assessment and blood test results and your needs. Vitamin B12 is excreted with urine and sweat, so it is difficult to overdose, but care should be taken and the recommended doses should not be exceeded.

. What time of day to take vitamin B12?.

Vitamin B12 is best taken in the first half of the day, as it is involved in the body's energy-producing processes and can have a positive effect on energy throughout the day. It is worth taking it in the morning on an empty stomach for better absorption.

. Which vitamin is better B6 or B12?.

Both of these B vitamins are important and each has its own important functions for the body. Vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 support the nervous, cardiovascular and mental systems. We should provide the body with both vitamins to function properly.

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Resources

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