The best multivitamin: which set of vitamins to choose? [Ranking]

Is a multivitamin for you? Find out what the experts, not the adverts, say about vitamin complexes!

Matthew Podlecki - AuthorAuthorMatthew Podlecki
Matthew Podlecki - Author
AuthorMatthew Podlecki
Natu.Care Editor

At Natu.Care, she educates about healthy lifestyles and debunks dangerous myths, contrasting them with the results of the latest scientific research. Additionally, she is interested in new technologies and their impact on health and everyday life.

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Ilona Bush - Reviewed byReviewed byIlona Bush
Verified by an expert
Ilona Bush - Reviewed by
Reviewed byIlona Bush
Master of Pharmacy

Ilona Krzak obtained her Master of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of Wrocław. She did her internship in a hospital pharmacy and in the pharmaceutical industry. She is currently working in the profession and also runs an educational profile on Instagram: @pani_z_apteki

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Michael Tomaszewski - Edited byEdited byMichael Tomaszewski
Michael Tomaszewski - Edited by
Edited by
Michael Tomaszewski
Editor

Graduate of Journalism and Artes Liberales at the University of Warsaw. Since 2017, he has been working with the biggest portals in Poland and abroad as an editor. Previously worked for 3 years in one of the leading pharmaceutical companies - he knows the health and beauty industry inside out. In his free time, he most enjoys playing tennis or skiing.

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Anna Wisniewska - Fact-checkingFact-checkingAnna Wisniewska
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The best multivitamin: which set of vitamins to choose? [Ranking]
29 April, 2024
13 min
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Vitamins are health, simple as that. If each one individually adds value, why not complete the whole abecadal at once?

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Multivitamins are one of the most popular supplements nationally and internationallyand. In theory, it makes sense. But is this actually the case in practice? You'll find out everything here based on scientific research. You'll also learn tips and advice from Master of Pharmacy, Ilona Krzak.

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When reaching for supplements, it is easy to forget that we should primarily provide vitamins and minerals in our daily diet. Clinical nutritionist, Julia Skrajda, will explain to you for whom (and in which cases) multivitamins are advisable... and also when not to even think about it.

Take your own supplements.

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From this article you will learn:

  • What vitamin supplements the experts recommend.
  • What the experts recommend.
  • Whether multivitamins make sense.
  • .
  • When to reach for multivitamins.
  • When to reach for multivitamins.
  • How to choose the best multivitamin for your needs.
  • .

The best multivitamins on the market

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TOP 6 best multivitamins - ranking

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  • ibuvit MultiSpec
  • .
  • Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active
  • .
  • Primabiotic Multivitamin
  • .
  • ALLDEYNN VITAROSE
  • .
  • Yango Multivitamin for Women
  • .
  • Yango multivitamin for men
  • .

Below you will find descriptions of products created for adults, women, men and the elderly.

The most important criteria for product selection are:

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    .
  • complexity of composition and formulation,
  • .
  • optimal coverage of the daily requirement of the individual components,
  • the
  • presence of minerals in the form of chelates, which are better absorbed than other forms,
  • .
  • safety of use,
  • .
  • price,
  • .

Multivitamin

ibuvit, MultiSpec

ibuvit, MultiSpec
4.7
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Complex support for the entire organism thanks to a composition of vitamins and mineralsós. The formula covers the daily requirement of almost all active ingredients. The rich composition makes the tablets an excellent dietary supplement.

The tablets use a triple-layer technology which releases the active ingredients at different times. Each layer contains different vitamins and minerals and has a different release time.

Pros and cons

Complex support for the entire organism thanks to a composition of vitamins and mineralsós. The formula covers the daily requirement of almost all active ingredients. The rich composition makes the tablets an excellent dietary supplement.

The tablets use a triple-layer technology which releases the active ingredients at different times. Each layer contains different vitamins and minerals and has a different release time.

Additional information

Complex support for the entire organism thanks to a composition of vitamins and mineralsós. The formula covers the daily requirement of almost all active ingredients. The rich composition makes the tablets an excellent dietary supplement.

The tablets use a triple-layer technology which releases the active ingredients at different times. Each layer contains different vitamins and minerals and has a different release time.

A wealth of active ingredients

Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active

Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active
4.7
  • Active ingredients: ADEK vitamins, B vitaminsmagnesiumironzinc, manganese, copper, iodineseleniumchromium and extracts of black pepper fruit and bamboo shoots
  • .
  • Form: capsules 
  • .
  • Dose: 2 capsules daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active is a dietary supplement containing 13 vitamins and 8 minerals 

. In addition, the preparation has been enriched with two plant extracts, which contributes to the effective support of the organism. 

Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active is a dietary supplement with a beneficial effect on the immune system.

The supplement from Pharmovit has a beneficial effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems. It is recommended for people with deficiencies (such as vegetarians and vegans), seniors (whose bodies have a harder time absorbing nutrients) and athletes with active lifestyles (due to an increased need for nutrients).

Provided by Pharmovit, the supplement has a beneficial effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems.

Pros and cons

Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active is a dietary supplement containing 13 vitamins and 8 minerals 

. In addition, the preparation has been enriched with two plant extracts, which contributes to the effective support of the organism. 

Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active is a dietary supplement with a beneficial effect on the immune system.

The supplement from Pharmovit has a beneficial effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems. It is recommended for people with deficiencies (such as vegetarians and vegans), seniors (whose bodies have a harder time absorbing nutrients) and athletes with active lifestyles (due to an increased need for nutrients).

Provided by Pharmovit, the supplement has a beneficial effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems.

Additional information

Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active is a dietary supplement containing 13 vitamins and 8 minerals 

. In addition, the preparation has been enriched with two plant extracts, which contributes to the effective support of the organism. 

Pharmovit Multivit Max Complex Active is a dietary supplement with a beneficial effect on the immune system.

The supplement from Pharmovit has a beneficial effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems. It is recommended for people with deficiencies (such as vegetarians and vegans), seniors (whose bodies have a harder time absorbing nutrients) and athletes with active lifestyles (due to an increased need for nutrients).

Provided by Pharmovit, the supplement has a beneficial effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems.

All in one

Primabiotic Multivitamin

Primabiotic Multivitamin
4.7
  • Active ingredients: ADEK vitamins, B vitaminsmagnesiumironzinc, manganese, copper, iodineseleniumchromium and extracts of black pepper fruit and bamboo shoots
  • .
  • Form: capsules 
  • .
  • Dose: 2 capsules daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Primabiotic Multivitamin is a dietary supplement with 13 vitamins and 8 minerals. In addition, the formula provides you with two plant extracts. This translates into effective support for your body.

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The supplement from Primabiotic has a positive effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems. It is recommended for people with deficiencies (e.g. vegetarians and vegans), seniors (whose bodies no longer assimilate nutrients as easily) and active athletes (due to increased demand).

The supplement from Primabiotic has a positive effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems.

Pros and cons

Primabiotic Multivitamin is a dietary supplement with 13 vitamins and 8 minerals. In addition, the formula provides you with two plant extracts. This translates into effective support for your body.

.

The supplement from Primabiotic has a positive effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems. It is recommended for people with deficiencies (e.g. vegetarians and vegans), seniors (whose bodies no longer assimilate nutrients as easily) and active athletes (due to increased demand).

The supplement from Primabiotic has a positive effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems.

Additional information

Primabiotic Multivitamin is a dietary supplement with 13 vitamins and 8 minerals. In addition, the formula provides you with two plant extracts. This translates into effective support for your body.

.

The supplement from Primabiotic has a positive effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems. It is recommended for people with deficiencies (e.g. vegetarians and vegans), seniors (whose bodies no longer assimilate nutrients as easily) and active athletes (due to increased demand).

The supplement from Primabiotic has a positive effect on the immune, circulatory and nervous systems.

Patented extract

ALLDEYNN VITAROSE

ALLDEYNN VITAROSE
4.7
  • Major ingredients: extracts from vegetables, fruitsós, vitamins, minerals, amino acids
  • .
  • Form: tablets
  • .
  • Packaging: 120 tablets
  • .
  • Dose: 4 tablets daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A comprehensive set of valuable vitamins and mineralsów specially formulated for women of all ages to support their health and beautiful appearance. Contains Oxxynea® – a patented natural plant extract whichóry contains a blend of 22 fruitsóy and vegetables.

Oxxynea® is rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and vitamins. In addition, VITAROSE contains a valuable composition of ingredientsós to support the condition and appearance of the skinós, hairós, nails, as well as immunity, digestive system, nervous system and well-being.

Pros and cons

A comprehensive set of valuable vitamins and mineralsów specially formulated for women of all ages to support their health and beautiful appearance. Contains Oxxynea® – a patented natural plant extract whichóry contains a blend of 22 fruitsóy and vegetables.

Oxxynea® is rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and vitamins. In addition, VITAROSE contains a valuable composition of ingredientsós to support the condition and appearance of the skinós, hairós, nails, as well as immunity, digestive system, nervous system and well-being.

Additional information

A comprehensive set of valuable vitamins and mineralsów specially formulated for women of all ages to support their health and beautiful appearance. Contains Oxxynea® – a patented natural plant extract whichóry contains a blend of 22 fruitsóy and vegetables.

Oxxynea® is rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and vitamins. In addition, VITAROSE contains a valuable composition of ingredientsós to support the condition and appearance of the skinós, hairós, nails, as well as immunity, digestive system, nervous system and well-being.

User review

A comprehensive set of valuable vitamins and mineralsów specially formulated for women of all ages to support their health and beautiful appearance. Contains Oxxynea® – a patented natural plant extract whichóry contains a blend of 22 fruitsóy and vegetables.

Oxxynea® is rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and vitamins. In addition, VITAROSE contains a valuable composition of ingredientsós to support the condition and appearance of the skinós, hairós, nails, as well as immunity, digestive system, nervous system and well-being.

A wealth of vitamins for women

Yango Multivitamin for Women

Yango Multivitamin for Women
4.9
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Multivitamin for women with up to 26 active ingredients thatósupport the body from within. The product also contains minerals and even collagen, which supports the hair, skin and nails. The liquid form makes it easy to supplement – the product has a fruity taste.

Pros and cons

Multivitamin for women with up to 26 active ingredients thatósupport the body from within. The product also contains minerals and even collagen, which supports the hair, skin and nails. The liquid form makes it easy to supplement – the product has a fruity taste.

Additional information

Multivitamin for women with up to 26 active ingredients thatósupport the body from within. The product also contains minerals and even collagen, which supports the hair, skin and nails. The liquid form makes it easy to supplement – the product has a fruity taste.

A wealth of vitamins for men

Yango multivitamin for men

Yango multivitamin for men
4.9
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Multivitamin for men with up to 26 active ingredients thatóre support the body from the inside. The product also contains minerals and even collagen, whichóry supports the hair skinóhand and nails. The liquid form makes it easy to supplement – the product has a fruity taste.

Pros and cons

Multivitamin for men with up to 26 active ingredients thatóre support the body from the inside. The product also contains minerals and even collagen, whichóry supports the hair skinóhand and nails. The liquid form makes it easy to supplement – the product has a fruity taste.

Additional information

Multivitamin for men with up to 26 active ingredients thatóre support the body from the inside. The product also contains minerals and even collagen, whichóry supports the hair skinóhand and nails. The liquid form makes it easy to supplement – the product has a fruity taste.

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Important

Multivitamin must under no circumstances replace a healthy and well-balanced diet.

See also:

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What is a multivitamin?

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Popular multivitamins are a combination ofand vitamins and minerals. Such a combination is primarily intended to replenish deficiencies, with each ingredient having a beneficial effect on the body.

When it comes to the form of taking a multivitamin, manufacturers spoil us. At your disposal are:

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  • tablets,
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  • capsules,
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  • doses,
  • .
  • fizzy tablets,
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  • drops,
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  • syrups,
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  • sachets of powder to dissolve,
  • .

You are sure to find the one that suits you best among them. 

Is it worth taking a vitamin complex? Opinions of a nutritionist and pharmacist

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Vitamins are all about health. And since more vitamins mean more health. You think to yourself, "I'm going to start taking multivitamins, just in case". Before you do, think it over carefully and check out what clinical dietitian Julia Skrajda has to say in this connection.

In standard cases, multivitamins in supplement form are not recommended.

Yes, you read that correctly - you probably don't even need to think about multivitamin supplementation.

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People tend to buy the first product off the shelf, which will not be tailored to their actual needs. Many products also contain ingredients that are mutually exclusive. The combination of omega-3 and omega-6 is unhelpful, as is the combination of zinc with selenium. We do not realise this by using 'mixes'.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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In turn, Ilona Krzak, MSc in pharmacy, also points out that "combining magnesium with calcium in the wrong ratio is also inappropriate, as these elements compete with each other for absorption. Furthermore, magnesium and calcium should not be taken together with iron, which limits their bioavailability."

Healthy people should make it a priority to eat a healthy, balanced diet - this is to provide the vitamins and micronutrients needed.

Considering supplementation? Do the necessary tests first. Discuss them with a specialist. If he or she recommends supplementation, determine exactly what and to what extent.

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Sundose Personalised°

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Create your own supplement plan based on your needs, test results and specialist recommendations.

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Does more mean better?

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Although it seems impossible, vitamins can also be overdosed. Both vitamin deficiency and excess (i.e. hypervitaminosis) can be a threat to your health. Contrary to appearances, an excess of vitamins and minerals is more dangerous than a deficiency.

Hypervitaminosis can produce a variety of symptoms - depending on which vitamins have been taken excessively. Fat-soluble vitamins, namely A, D, E and K, are most commonly affected. Excess water-soluble vitamins are regularly eliminated with urine.

Incompetent use of supplements can lead to:

  • renal failure (too much vitamin D3),
  • .
  • liver dysfunction (too much vitamin Aand),
  • .
  • gut inflammation and even diabetes (too much iron),
  • .
  • stomach disorders, including heartburn and diarrhoea (too much vitamin C),
  • .
  • weight loss, nausea and taste disturbances (too little vitamin B12and),
  • .
  • fatigue, intestinal disorders, impaired vision or muscle weakness (too much vitamin E).
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The general symptoms of faulty supplementation will manifest themselves in the organs where the vitamin or mineral is absorbed and metabolised. The whole body will be affected by the excess, and your mood will be different to the one you wanted to achieve.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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More than 60,000 cases of vitamin poisoning are reported annually in the US alone - including those involving children under 6and.

Who should take multivitamins and who should not?

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Multivitamins are usually prescribed for specific conditions of deficiency or increased need.

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Additional supplements should not be used by people who do not have a test-confirmed deficiency. A properly balanced diet for a healthy person will provide everything the body needs. Of course, an exception is made for abnormalities or disease states.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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Which groups may require additional supplementation in their diet?

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Although there are a few groups for whom additional supplementation is recommended. This will usually only include a few vitamins or minerals.

The following are the most important ones:

  • pregnant and breastfeeding women (remember to test and consult your doctor before starting),
  • .
  • people on elimination diets (vegetarians and vegans tend to be vitamin B12 deficient and have poorer iron absorption),
  • .
  • persons on long-term ketogenic diets (may require supplementation of B vitamins, as their greatest sources are carbohydrate products),
  • .
  • athletes and physically active people (may need supplementation of any water-soluble ingredients),
  • .
  • women using contraception (should supplement with B vitamins as they are washed out by the contraceptive pill),
  • .
  • people taking metformin-based medicines (they should supplement with vitamin B12 as it increases its excretion from the body),
  • .
  • children fed solid foods, i.e. from about 1 year of age (it is advisable to give them vitamin D3 and omega-3 acids - our body does not synthesise them on its own and they should be taken with food, and besides, they are very important for their development).
  • Seniors and the elderly (should supplement vitamins and minerals due to their frequent lack of appetite and the number of medications they take. Unfortunately, it is often a challenge for them to take regularly).

Multivitamin preparations are also worth taking during intensive mental work and when recovering from illness.

What vitamins should you take?

What vitamins should seniors, women men look for?

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There is no general rule for all women, men, older, younger.

Supplementation should always be selected for identified deficiencies or specific symptoms, and should take into account the condition and state of health.

Most often, recommendations involve individually tailored doses of vitamin D3 and omega-3 acids - substances invaluable to our bodies, to which we have limited access: in Poland, we have few sunny days and we rarely eat fish.

There are, however, several cases in which the intake of specific ingredients is recommended.

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Pregnant women should take magnesium and vitamin B6 regularly - these reduce discomfort associated with PMS, among other things.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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In seniors, vitamin C supplementation will be extremely important. "Although large amounts are taken in food, deficiencies are often observed. And it is an important vitamin: it improves blood clotting, accelerates wound healing and supports immunity. To strengthen immunity, we can also offer zinc supplementation to seniors - under the guidance of a nutritionist or doctor, of course," Julia Skrajda points out.

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Seniors should also take care of calcium and potassium. "These can be provided through highly mineralised water, but I still observe that seniors are drinking too little of it," - recalls Julia Skrajda.

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Potassium should be supplemented under the full supervision of a specialist for the fact that older people very often take medication for hypertension. "When taking so-called potassium-sparing hypertension medications and taking additional supplementation of this element, it is very easy to overdose on potassium, which can lead to dangerous side effects," warns Ilona Krzak, MSc, pharmacist.

Potassium should be monitored by a specialist.

Is multivitamins worth giving to children?

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Before you start giving multivitamins to your children because, for example, he or she is an eater, it is essential to consult your paediatrician or a nutritionist.

Before you start giving multivitamins to your children because, for example, he or she is an eater.

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Definitely do not give children vitamins in the form of supplements as their synthetic form has poorer absorption and they may not be suitable for the digestive system.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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For children, multivitamins in the form of OTC medicines will definitely be safer. Currently, the multivitamin preparation registered as a medicine is Multisanostol in syrup.

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The best thing for toddlers will be natural products such as fruit, vegetables or natural syrups or nigella oil when they need more immune support substances during illness.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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A child's daily diet should be supplemented with vitamin D3, such as in drops, as well as omega-3 fatty acids and tran.

How to choose the best set of vitamins.

Finally, I have 4 tips for you so that you always make the best decision when it comes to buying a multivitamin.

  1. Before you decide on supplementation, do the appropriate research and consult with your doctor or nutritionist to determine together exactly what you need.
  2. The most important criterion is your needs and the deficiencies you want to supplement.
  3. .
  4. The multivitamin should be tailored to your gender, age, your diet or physical activity. There is also a good chance that you will benefit more from a good selection of individual ingredients.
  5. Before you buy, check the declared dosage of the individual ingredients on the packaging and what their percentage of the daily requirement is per tablet, which is determined by the RWS index).

Want to learn more about the world of vitamins and minerals and how each one affects our bodies? Be sure to read one of our articles (or preferably all of them):

Summary

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Everyone wants to take the best possible care of their health and well-being. Despite our good intentions, we unknowingly reach for multivitamin preparations that may not be tailored to our actual needs:

  • The primary source of vitamins for human beings is food.
  • The primary source of vitamins for humans is food.
  • Before thinking about a multivitamin, ensure a good diet.
  • Before taking a multivitamin, ensure a good diet.
  • Before starting supplementation, do blood tests and consult your doctor or nutritionist.
  • Supplementation overzealousness can lead to hypervitaminosis, which is dangerous.
  • .
  • Supplementation with vitamins - not necessarily multivitamins - is advisable for pregnant women, people on restricted diets, athletes and the elderly.
  • Children should not take multivitamins in supplement form. Those with OTC (over-the-counter) drug status are safer.
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FAQ

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. What are the best vitamins for fatigue?.

Research clearly shows that there are several vitamins that particularly help with fatigue. The most important of these are:

  • vitamin D: its deficiency is closely linked to increased fatigue , and normalising its concentration in the body  will make you more energetic.
  • vitamin B12: improves cognitive function , reduces symptoms of fatigue and helps with depressive episodes;
  • vitamin C: intravenous application  will have the best effect;
  • .

See also what is the best vitamin D.

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. Is it worth taking multivitamins in the form of effervescent tablets?.

Effervescent tablets can be a convenient way of supplementation - especially if you have problems swallowing tablets or capsules. They may also be better absorbed. However, they often contain sugar, sweeteners and caking agents, or artificial colours and flavours, which can do more harm than good. Therefore, read labels carefully and remember that the effectiveness and safety of multivitamins, including effervescent tablets, depends on the specific composition and dosage.

. What should a multivitamin for seniors contain?.

It all depends on what deficiencies a particular person is facing. Seniors are most often deficient in B vitamins, vitamin C and D, as well as calcium, zinc, magnesium and folic acid. It is also important to ensure that supplements do not interact with any medication you are taking.

. What is the best time to take multivitamins?.

There are no specific studies that clearly state when it is best to take multivitamins. It is suggested that it should be taken during or after a meal - this will improve the absorption of the formula, especially those with fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), calcium, iron and zinc cit@ation.

See also: Best zinc in tablets.

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. What vitamins to buy at the pharmacy.

Reach for preparations from proven manufacturers, preferably with standardised ingredients. Before buying, check the leaflet and composition - avoid unnecessary fillers and remember that the dose should cover the daily requirement for vitamins and minerals.

. Is there a set of vitamins registered as a medicine?.

Most multivitamins are dietary supplements. Currently, two products for children are registered as OTC (over-the-counter) medicine: Juvit Multi drops and Multi-Sanostol syrup.

. What are the most powerful multivitamins on the market?.

The "potency" of vitamins is expressed in their dose and concentration. If you are severely deficient, look for vitamin preparations with high concentrations of the individual components you need.

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Sources

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. See all.

Anemia-Vitamin B12-Deficiency Anemia | NHLBI, NIH. (2022, March 24). https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/anemia/vitamin-b12-deficiency-anemia

Björn-Rasmussen, E., & Hallberg, L. (1974). Iron Absorption from Maize. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 16(2), 94-100. https://doi.org/10.1159/000175477

California, M. S., PharmD, PhD Department of Pharmacy Alta Bates Summit Medical Center Berkeley. (n.d.). Hypervitaminosis: A Global Concern. Retrieved March 31, 2023, from https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/hypervitaminosis-a-global-concern

Cook, J., Dassenko, S., & Whittaker, P. (1991). Calcium supplementation: Effect on iron absorption. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53(1), 106-111. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/53.1.106

Dev, R., Del Fabbro, E., Schwartz, G. G., Hui, D., Palla, S. L., Gutierrez, N., & Bruera, E. (2011). Preliminary Report: Vitamin D Deficiency in Advanced Cancer Patients with Symptoms of Fatigue or Anorexia. The Oncologist, 16(11), 1637-1641. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0151

Frigstad, S. O., Høivik, M. L., Jahnsen, J., Cvancarova, M., Grimstad, T., Berset, I. P., Huppertz-Hauss, G., Hovde, Ø., Bernklev, T., Moum, B., & Jelsness-Jørgensen, L.-P. (2018). Fatigue is not associated with vitamin D deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease patients. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 24(29), 3293-3301. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v24.i29.3293

Khatun, A., Chowdhury, S. D., Roy, B. C., Dey, B., Haque, A., & Chandran, B. (2019). Comparative effects of inorganic and three forms of organic trace minerals on growth performance, carcass traits, immunity, and profitability of broilers. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 6(1), 66-73. https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2019.f313

Markun, S., Gravestock, I., Jäger, L., Rosemann, T., Pichierri, G., & Burgstaller, J. M. (2021). Effects of Vitamin B12 Supplementation on Cognitive Function, Depressive Symptoms, and Fatigue: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression. Nutrients, 13(3), Article 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030923

Office of Dietary Supplements-Multivitamin/mineral Supplements. (n.d.). Retrieved 17 April 2023, from https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/MVMS-Consumer/

Roughead, Z. K. (Fariba), Zito, C. A., & Hunt, J. R. (2005). Inhibitory effects of dietary calcium on the initial uptake and subsequent retention of heme and nonheme iron in humans: Comparisons using an intestinal lavage method. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(3), 589-597. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/82.3.589

Roy, S., Sherman, A., Monari-Sparks, M. J., Schweiker, O., & Hunter, K. (2014). Correction of low vitamin D improves fatigue: Effect of correction of low vitamin D in fatigue study (EViDiF study). North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(8), 396. https://doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.139291

Ruiz-Irastorza, G., Egurbide, M. V., Olivares, N., Martinez-Berriotxoa, A., & Aguirre, C. (2008). Vitamin D deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus: Prevalence, predictors and clinical consequences. Rheumatology, 47(6), 920-923. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ken121

Suh, S.-Y., Bae, W. K., Ahn, H.-Y., Choi, S.-E., Jung, G.-C., & Yeom, C. H. (2012). Intravenous Vitamin C administration reduces fatigue in office workers: A double-blind randomised controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 11(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-11-7

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