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Cordyceps: properties, contraindications, doctors' opinions

Cordyceps is a type of parasitic fungus that grows on insect larvae. Can it...help you?

Nina Wawryszuk - AuthorAuthorNina Wawryszuk
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Nina Wawryszuk specialises in sports supplementation, strength training and psychosomatics. On a daily basis, in addition to writing articles for Natu.Care, as a personal trainer she helps athletes improve their performance through training, diet and supplementation.

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Cordyceps: properties, contraindications, doctors' opinions
29 April, 2024
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Cordyceps is an intriguing fungus. Its long, often intensely orange stalk could adorn many a rockery in the garden. Unfortunately, the only thing that adorns cordyceps is... the bodies of its victims.

The parasitic fungus is, on the one hand, deadly to some insect species and, on the other hand, has been used by humans for hundreds of years as a health and well-being booster. I have compiled the scientific findings so far and am happy to share the findings with you.

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From this article you will learn:

  • What is cordyceps and what are the types of cordyceps.
  • What is cordyceps?
  • What properties cordyceps has.
  • .
  • Whether cordyceps can grow on your back.
  • How to take cordyceps.
  • How to take cordyceps and when to expect the effects.
  • .
  • What are the contraindications to use and side effects.
  • .

See also:

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What is cordyceps?

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Cordyceps (Latin: cordyceps) is a generic term for a species of parasitic fungi, of which there are more than 680and. Most are native to Asia, with most found in the high altitude areas of Nepal and Tibet. The best studied species are cordyceps sinensis and cordyceps militaris. You will also encounter this fungus under the names Chinese cordyceps or Chinese mace.

The name of the mushroom comes from the ancient Greek word κορδύλη kordýlē, meaning 'mace', and the Latin suffix -ceps, which means 'with a head'. Why such an idea for a name?

Cordyceps specialises in parasitising specific insect species. It penetrates them, feeds on them and takes nutrients from their bodies. The infected prey is literally controlled by the fungus. When it has finished its feeding, the host dies and long stalks of cordyceps grow on its corpse, the ends of which look like tentacles.

Can cordyceps infect humans?

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Popularity of cordyceps preparations is growing. You think, "Have people gone mad? Invite a parasite into the body?". Rest assured - cordyceps cannot infect humans the way it attacks insects. Nutritionist Aleksandra Cudna explains:

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Every parasite that exists in nature attacks a specific host to which it is evolutionarily adapted. Cordyceps cannot infect a human being and proliferate. And it certainly won't work as in the popular TV series.
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Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka.

Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka Clinical nutritionist

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Where did the idea of consuming cordycepse come from?

Did anyone ever see this fungus sticking out of an insect carcass and think: oh, this could help me! Maybe. We don't know exactly how the use of this parasite to treat various ailments came about. But we do know that it served humans many centuries ago.

In ancient Chinese medicine, the remains of infected insect and fungal bodies were collected. They were dried and used to treat fatigue, certain diseases and low libidoand.

Today, thanks to the work of scientists, we know that the bioactive components cordycepin, polysaccharides, ergosterol, mannitol and adenosine are responsible for the effects of this mushroom .

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The mushroom also contains a number of important nutrients, including amino acids, B vitamins (B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B12), vitamin K, various types of carbohydrates of therapeutic importance, proteins, sterols, nucleosides and other trace elementsand.

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What does cordyceps work for?

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Scientific studies to date (mostly in vitro or with animals) show that cordyceps has positive effects on mood, cholesterol reduction, fatigue reduction, immune support, reduction of inflammation in the body, and improved athletic performance .

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Unfortunately, despite the fact that cordyceps has been used for thousands of years in Chinese medicine, we cannot say that this mushroom has health-promoting properties for humans. There are too few scientific studies with humans on this topic.

Cordyceps - properties

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Results from studies conducted mainlyon animals or in vitro (studies under laboratory conditions, for example in a test tube) have shown several promising properties of this mushroom.

Cordyceps potentially:

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Reduces stress and mental tension

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Some manufacturers of cordyceps preparations write about the mood-enhancing and even antidepressant potential of this mushroom - but be careful with this. A doctor explains:

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According to scientific studies, partially positive results have been observed in rats and mice suffering from depression. These results have not been confirmed in humans, so there is no argument for using this form of therapy to treat depression.
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Marcin Zarzycki.

Marcin Zarzycki physician

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Cordyceps is used in Chinese medicine as a functional food due to its stress and fatigue relieving effectsand. However, consider it as a support, not the sole source of improving your wellbeing.

Promotes memory and concentration

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Cordyceps is a popular addition to so-called 'functional coffees' and 'brain-boosters', which are said to stimulate the mind, improve memory and focus.

Regular consumption of this mushroom may improve learning and memoryand. Furthermore, it may alleviate short-term memory impairment caused by cerebral ischaemia (e.g. after a stroke) .

Cordyceps contains nucleosides, cordycepic acid and other bioactive substances that may have potential benefits for cognitive function .

Anti-ageing effects

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Eat mushrooms and stop ageing - tempts supplement manufacturers. What has a study on rodents shown?"

This mushroom increased levels of antioxidants, improved memory and learning in ageing mice. Rodents performed better in maze testsand.

In another study, cordyceps militaris extended the lives of fruit flies and mice, compared to test animals that took a placeboand.

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Scientists explain that the antioxidant content of cordyceps may explain its anti-ageing potential .

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Antioxidants (or antioxidants) are chemical compounds that protect the body's cells from the damaging effects of free radicals - perishable molecules that, in excess, promote the onset of many diseases and accelerate the ageing process.
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Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka.

Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka Clinical nutritionist

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Reduces inflammation

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In laboratory studies, cordyceps militaris suppressed proteins that increase inflammation in the bodyand. These are promising observations, offering hope for many people with chronic illnesses (e.g. joints), but the research to date has been conducted on mice.

In a 2008 study, mice with asthma were given cordyceps. They had reduced inflammation in their airwaysand.

Cordyceps may also have anti-inflammatory uses on the skin. One scientific study showed that the fungus (of the genus militaris) applied topically to mice reduces skin inflammation .

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Important

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There are creams and ointments available with this fungus, usually advertised for joint and muscle pain - but remember to see a doctor or physiotherapist with such ailments.

Improves sports performance

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Scientific research shows that cordyceps improves athletic performance by increasing blood flow, oxygen utilisation and antioxidant effectsand.

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Cordyceps increases the production of the ATP molecule, which positively affects the body's oxygen utilisation efficiency during physical activity .

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ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the body's 'energy carrier'. During intense exercise, the body produces and consumes large amounts of ATP, which is essential for supplying energy to the muscles.
Anna Osica

Anna Osica personal trainer

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Note - finally a human study. The effects of cordycepse on sports performance were studied in seniors. Rest assured - they were not told to train 5 times a week for crossfit.

In one study, 30 healthy older people were given either a synthetic strain of cordycep 3 times a day or a placebo for 6 weeks. Their only activity was riding a stationary bicycle.

At the end of the study, the participants who took cordycep increased their oxygen ceiling by 7%. The seniors taking placebo showed no change in this parameterand.

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Oxygen threshold (VO2 max) is a measurement used to determine fitness levels. It is the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can assimilate and utilise during intense exercise.
Anna Osica

Anna Osica personal trainer

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In a similar study, 20 seniors were given 1 gram of cordycep or placebo for 12 weeksand. The study participants improved their exercise performance and felt an improvement in well-beingand.

Maybe for Grandma and Grandpa's Day instead of chocolates - a packet of cordycep? Just don't tell them how the fungus works on insects!"

About that.

But - scientific studies suggest that cordyceps is not effective in improving exercise performance in trained athletesand. In one study, exercised cyclists consumed cordyceps for 5 weeks, but it did not improve aerobic capacity or endurance exercise performance .

If you want to improve performance during training, check out ashwagahdha or other adaptogens.

Improves libido

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In Chinese medicine, cordyceps has been used to improve sexual desire, fertility and semen quality. Scientific studies have shown that cordyceps (of the genus militaris) has a positive effect on increased testosterone production and improves sexual health in ratsand.

Rats given cordyceps improved sexual function - appearance of erection, erection time and ejaculation .

Leaving excited rats aside - the effects of cordycepse on desire were tested in 1985 on a group of up to 155 humans. Those given the mushroom increased sexual desire by 64.5 per cent.

The study also found that the effect of cordycepx on sexual desire increased by 64.5 per cent.

In 2016, a review of studies found that the benefits of taking cordycepse included increased libido and desire in both sexes and a 33% increase in sperm count over 8 weeksand.

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Anticancer effects

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Compounds that show potential anti-cancer potential should be viewed with caution and the quality of scientific studies should be checked. Unfortunately, there are no human studies - again, we have to rely on rodents and laboratory studies.

In a 2015 in vitro study, cordyceps inhibited the growth of multiple types of cancer cells in lung, colon, skin and liver cancerand. In mouse studies, it stopped the growth of lung cancer, lymphoma and melanoma .

A 2009 study tested the effects of cordyceps (from the genus sinensis) on mice with leukopenia after radiotherapy and treatment with Taxol (a chemotherapeutic drug). Cordyceps reversed the leukopenia.

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Leukopenia is a condition in which the number of white blood cells - leukocytes - decreases, lowering the body's defences and increasing the risk of infection.
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Dr Witold Tomaszewski.

Witold Tomaszewskidoctor of medical sciences

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However, it should be remembered that these studies were conducted on animals and in vitro, so the effect of cordyceps on tumour suppression or leukopenia in humans is as yet unknown.

Prevents type II diabetes

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Results from studies in diabetic mice have shown that cordyceps supports the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels by 'mimicking' the action of insulinand.

Cordyceps may in the future play an important role in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy by affecting signalling pathways involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance .

Improves kidney health

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A review of 22 studies from 2014 involving 1,746 people with chronic kidney disease found that patients taking cordyceps preparations experienced improvements in the function of these organsand.

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It should be noted, however, that these results are not conclusive - the review authors stated that many of the studies were of low quality.

Reduces cholesterol

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In one 2011 study, hamsters and rats were fed a high-fat diet. They were also given cordycepin from Cordycepus (genus militaris) for 4 weeks. After this treatment, the rodents' total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL 'bad cholesterouland.

The same results were obtained by Syrian hamsters in another study, in which their lipid profile was also significantly improved .

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Deficiencies in lipid metabolism, such as high cholesterol, promote the development of cardiovascular disease.
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Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka.

Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka Clinical nutritionist

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Promotes heart health

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Rats with chronic kidney disease were put under the magnifying glass of the researchers. They were given cordyceps (of the genus sinensis) for 8 weeks. The study showed that the fungus significantly reduced heart and liver damage in the rodentsand.

Scientists attributed this effect to the adenosine present in cordyceps. Adenosine is a naturally occurring compound that protects the heart .

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Some studies show that cordyceps can increase blood flow in the heart and brain, improve microcirculation and stabilise blood pressure.
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Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka.

Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka Clinical nutritionist

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Aids weight loss

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In a 2010 study, rats were fattened and given cordycepin at the same time. The researchers' conclusions indicate that consumption of cordycepin may promote weight loss, and that the microflora produced by cordycepin may be one mechanism for reducing obesityand.

See also:

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Does cordyceps have hallucinogenic effects?

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No, cordyceps does not belong to the group of "hallucinogenic mushrooms". It does not have psychoactive substances (e.g. psilocybin) that induce changes in perception, mood and thinking.

No.

In a nutshell - what does cordyceps help with?

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    .
  • Reduces stress and mental tension.
  • .
  • Promotes memory and concentration.
  • .
  • Slows the ageing process.
  • Improves the health of the kidneys, heart.
  • Improves the health of the kidneys.
  • Reduces inflammation.
  • .
  • Aids weight loss.
  • .
  • Prevents diabetes.
  • .
  • Helps improve athletic performance.
  • .
  • Reduces bad cholesterol.
  • .

Remember, these are likely actions of cordycep. More studies with humans are needed to confirm these properties.

Please note.

Dosing

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Because of limited human studies, there is no clear consensus on the dosage of cordycep. Research studies have used 1000-3000 mg per dayand in subjects. This amount did not cause side effects. It is safest if you follow the manufacturer's recommendations on the packaging.

How long to use cordyceps?

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It is not clear how long to use cordyceps. In various scientific studies, cordyceps has been administered to humans or animals for 2 to 3 weeks and this has not been associated with side effects. The effect of long-term cordyceps intake on humans is unknown and it is not clearly indicated how long it can be usedand.

If you don't feel the effects of cordycep after a few weeks, try other adaptogenic plants.

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See also:

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What time to take cordyceps?

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It does not matter at what time you take cordyceps, as this mushroom does not have an ad hoc effect. Consumed in the morning or before a workout, it will not stimulate (it is not a stimulant), and taken before bedtime it will not have a sleep-inducing effect (it has no sleeping properties). Adjust the consumption of cordycepse to your preference.

Some herbalists indicate that it is a good idea to consume cordyceps on an empty stomach. This allows the natural digestive enzymes to process it and absorb it into the body more easily.

When will I see the effects of cordyceps?

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You can feel the effects of cordycep even after a week of systematic consumption, but it depends on the purpose of use. For example, a reduction in blood cholesterol will not happen in a few days (and won't happen at all if you don't change your diet), so blood tests should be done after about 4-6 weeks of use.

But if you have exams, an important event or a lot of work ahead of you, within a few days you may already feel that you can withstand mental tension better and your concentration is better.

Which cordyceps to choose?

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It is best to choose cordyceps products that are standardised for polysaccharide content (10-40%) and cordic acid (preferably min. 7%). Additionally, the high quality of the product is evidenced by the manufacturer's indication of the DER (drug extract ratio).

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Cordyceps from dietary supplements is not the same cordyceps from Tibetan monks where it naturally occurs, it is just its synthetic form extracted in laboratories.
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Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka.

Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka Clinical nutritionist

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"Real" cordyceps is not found in 99.9% of dietary supplements, due to its extremely high price. A kilogram costs up to... $20,000, making it one of the most expensive mushrooms in the world. It is sold almost exclusively in Asia and rarely reaches the North American marketand.

Cordyceps alone is not worth supporting. Look out for preparations that are mixtures of mushrooms and other adaptogenic plants. Some combinations may work better than a single active ingredient.

Protip

Also look for piperine in the formulation. It enhances the absorption of cordycepse and other active ingredients.

For athletes

Solve Labs Shroom Force Sport cordyceps mushrooms and adaptogens

Solve Labs Shroom Force Sport cordyceps mushrooms and adaptogens
4.5
  • Composition: extract Cordyceps sinensis, green tea, ashwagandha, membranous astragalus, gógór, grape seed extract
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Packaging: 30 or 60 capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 3 capsules daily before training
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 10 or 20 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Shroom Force is a natural performance and function support blend based on a combination of cordyceps mushroom and plant extractsós. The composition is recommended for physically active people and anyone who needs to raise their energy levels in life.

Pros and cons

Shroom Force is a natural performance and function support blend based on a combination of cordyceps mushroom and plant extractsós. The composition is recommended for physically active people and anyone who needs to raise their energy levels in life.

Additional information

Shroom Force is a natural performance and function support blend based on a combination of cordyceps mushroom and plant extractsós. The composition is recommended for physically active people and anyone who needs to raise their energy levels in life.

Coffee substitute

Kanaste, Better Focus, functional drink with adaptogens

Kanaste, Better Focus, functional drink with adaptogens
4.7

Composition: extracts of cordycepse, Lion’s Mane, chagi, ashwagandha, góginseng; L-tyrosine, Alpha GPC, L-theanine, pterostilbene

Form: powder

Packaging: 219 g

Dose: 7 g per day

Sufficient for: 30 days

See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A combination of nootropicsós, mushroomsós and adaptogensós created for your concentration, mental clarity and high energy levels. It is a healthy alternative to coffee without feeling irritable or havingósleep problems.

Pros and cons

A combination of nootropicsós, mushroomsós and adaptogensós created for your concentration, mental clarity and high energy levels. It is a healthy alternative to coffee without feeling irritable or havingósleep problems.

Additional information

A combination of nootropicsós, mushroomsós and adaptogensós created for your concentration, mental clarity and high energy levels. It is a healthy alternative to coffee without feeling irritable or havingósleep problems.

User review

A combination of nootropicsós, mushroomsós and adaptogensós created for your concentration, mental clarity and high energy levels. It is a healthy alternative to coffee without feeling irritable or havingósleep problems.

.

Contraindications

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Cordycep contraindications include: pregnancy, breastfeeding, age under 18, autoimmune diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus), use of anticoagulants or immunosuppressants and planned surgery.

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There are indications that cordyceps may affect the risk of bleeding during surgery. Consult your doctor before surgery and tell him or her what medicines and supplements you are taking. Some of them - like cordyceps - should be discontinued 2 weeks before surgery.
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Dr Witold Tomaszewski.

Witold Tomaszewskidoctor of medical sciences

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Side effects

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Cordyceps may cause side effects in some such asand:

  • diarrhoea,
  • .
  • constipation,
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  • discomfort in the stomach,
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  • nausea,
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Unpleasant symptoms usually resolve after discontinuation of the preparation.

Cordyceps can affect the increased leaching of calcium from the body, so ensure an adequate supply of calcium in your dietand.

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Cordyceps - expert opinions

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Preliminary studies show an interesting potential for the effects of cordyceps, but the study groups to date have not been numerous and there is no information about a planned or ongoing clinical trial starring this fungus. I do not rule out that cordyceps-containing preparations could become valuable medicines. For the moment, its consumption is a medical 'experiment'.
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Dr Witold Tomaszewski.

Witold Tomaszewskidoctor of medical sciences

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Cordyceps has strong medicinal potential, but at this point we only know a small percentage of its properties and actual action. It is worth trying it, keep an open mind, but it is important not to exceed the recommended daily servings and not to set yourself up for a "big WOW".
Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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There is a lack of evidence for the full safety of cordycep in humans. A few studies - not necessarily of good quality and on a large group of people - are still too few to determine daily intake recommendations, safety and optimal duration of use.
Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka.

Aleksandra Cudna-Bartnicka Clinical nutritionist

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Cordyceps is considered pharmacologically safe for human consumption. It shows interesting potential to support the body and psyche. If you want to try it - go ahead, it may help you.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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See also:

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Summary

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  • Cordyceps is a parasitic fungus that attacks selected insect species. It is not dangerous to humans.
  • Cordyceps mushrooms grow mainly in the high altitude areas of Nepal and Tibet.
  • Cordyceps is a fungus that has been studied in many countries.
  • The best studied species are cordyceps sinensis and cordyceps militaris.
  • .
  • Studies on the effects of cordyceps with humans are few and often of poor quality. The beneficial effects of cordyceps have mainly been investigated in in vitro laboratory tests and in animals.
  • The beneficial effects of cordyceps have not been studied in humans.
  • Cordyceps has shown potential in these studies to support heart function, kidney function, sugar and insulin metabolism, and to support memory, concentration, libido and sports performance.
  • Do not use cordyceps if you are pregnant or lactating, under 18 years of age, undergoing chronic treatment for autoimmune disease or using immunosuppressants and anticoagulants, and if you are planning surgery.

FAQ

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. When to take cordyceps?.

Determine when is the best time to take cordyceps for yourself and tailor the intake to your daily rhythm. It is important to be systematic, as adaptogens - of which cordyceps is one - needs time to 'kick in' and taking it regularly is key. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations and try to create a habit of consuming cordyceps daily.

. Is cordyceps safe?.

Yes, cordyceps is safe for humans and cannot infect them in any way. When used in the manufacturer's recommended doses, it usually does not cause side effects. However, in some people it can lead to side effects, which most commonly involve gastrointestinal disordersand.

It is not known whether cordyceps is safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women, so its use during this period is not recommended .

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. Does cordyceps stimulate?.

No cordyceps does not stimulate because it is not a stimulant and does not have such properties. Some scientific studies indicate that cordyceps, which is one of the adaptogens, can reduce fatigue, which can translate into feeling more energy to perform.

. Do you need to take breaks from cordycep?

Yes, some sources state that you need to take breaks of about a week from consuming cordycep after 6-8 weeks of use. This is because the mushrooms in this species activate immune cells and it is important to give the body time to rest and rebalance after a cycle of use.

. Does cordyceps lower blood pressure?.

Some scientific studies show that cordyceps can increase blood flow in the heart and brain, improve microcirculation and stabilise blood pressure. It should be noted that cordyceps research is mainly in vitro or animal laboratory tests. Cordyceps cannot be used as a treatment for hypertension.

. Where does cordyceps grow?.

Cordyceps grows mainly in the Tibetan Highlands in the highest mountain areas of Nepal and Tibet. It is a relatively rare mushroom and is difficult to collect. This makes it expensive - its price is as high as £20,000 per kilogram.

. Can matzo beetle infect humans?.

No, the tentacle (cordyceps) cannot infect humans. This fungus does not attack humans, only selected insect species e.g. ants, spiders, moths and locusts. It will not affect humans in the way it affects insects.

. Can cordyceps be cultured?.

Yes, it is possible to grow Cordyceps, but it is difficult and expensive. Cordyceps needs special conditions to thrive. The cordyceps mycelium grows vigorously in the dark at 12-23°C. It usually takes about 21 days for most strains to develop eggs.

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Sources

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. See all.

Ahn, Y. J., Park, S. J., Lee, S. G., Shin, S. C., & Choi, D. H. (2000). Cordycepin: Selective growth inhibitor derived from liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris against Clostridium spp. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(7), 2744-2748. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990862n

An, Y., Li, Y., Wang, X., Chen, Z., Xu, H., Wu, L., Li, S., Wang, C., Luan, W., Wang, X., Liu, M., Tang, X., & Yu, L. (2018). Cordycepin reduces weight through regulating gut microbiota in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Lipids in Health and Disease, 17(1), 276. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-018-0910-6

Chen, B., Sun, Y., Luo, F., & Wang, C. (2020). Bioactive Metabolites and Potential Mycotoxins Produced by Cordyceps Fungi: A Review of Safety. Toxins, 12(6), Article 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060410

Chen, S., Li, Z., Krochmal, R., Abrazado, M., Kim, W., & Cooper, C. B. (2010a). Effect of Cs-4® (Cordyceps sinensis) on Exercise Performance in Healthy Older Subjects: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(5), 585-590. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2009.0226

Chen, S., Li, Z., Krochmal, R., Abrazado, M., Kim, W., & Cooper, C. B. (2010b). Effect of Cs-4® (Cordyceps sinensis) on Exercise Performance in Healthy Older Subjects: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(5), 585-590. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2009.0226

Cunningham, K. G., Manson, W., Spring, F. S., & Hutchinson, S. A. (1950). Cordycepin, a metabolic product isolated from cultures of Cordyceps militaris (Linn.) Link. Nature, 166(4231), 949. https://doi.org/10.1038/166949a0

Das, G., Shin, H.-S., Leyva-Gómez, G., Prado-Audelo, M. L. D., Cortes, H., Singh, Y. D., Panda, M. K., Mishra, A. P., Nigam, M., Saklani, S., Chaturi, P. K., Martorell, M., Cruz-Martins, N., Sharma, V., Garg, N., Sharma, R., & Patra, J. K. (2020). Cordyceps spp.: A Review on Its Immune-Stimulatory and Other Biological Potentials. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 602364. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.602364

Das, S. K., Masuda, M., Sakurai, A., & Sakakibara, M. (2010). Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: Current state and prospects. Phytotherapy, 81(8), 961-968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2010.07.010

Dietary supplements and bleeding-PMC. (n.d.). Retrieved 25 May 2023, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9586694/

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