EPA acid: what it is, where it occurs, effects + expert opinion

EPA is one of the healthy omega-3 fatty acids; learn about its properties and tasty sources.

Nina Wawryszuk - AuthorAuthorNina Wawryszuk
Nina Wawryszuk - Author
AuthorNina Wawryszuk
Natu.Care Editor

Nina Wawryszuk specialises in sports supplementation, strength training and psychosomatics. On a daily basis, in addition to writing articles for Natu.Care, as a personal trainer she helps athletes improve their performance through training, diet and supplementation.

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Alexandra Cudna-Bartnicka - Reviewed byReviewed byAlexandra Cudna-Bartnicka
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Alexandra Cudna-Bartnicka - Reviewed by
Reviewed byAlexandra Cudna-Bartnicka
Clinical nutritionist

Clinical nutritionist whose main area of interest is nutrition in diseases and functional disorders of the digestive system.

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Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited byEdited byBartholomew Turczynski
Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited by
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EPA acid: what it is, where it occurs, effects + expert opinion
29 April, 2024
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Omega-3 fatty acids are the most important healthy fats your body needs to function properly. One of them, EPA, stands out for its huge impact on regulating inflammation in the body.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) - read it out loud, the sooner, the funnier - you need to supply it with your diet and catch that moment when you don't have enough.

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From this article you will learn:

  • What EPA acid is.
  • .
  • How it affects your health.
  • .
  • Where does EPA acid occur.
  • How it affects your health.
  • What are the symptoms of deficiency and excess.
  • How does it affect your health?

See also:

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Omega-3 fatty acids

.

Let's start from the general to the specific.

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Omega-3 fatty acids (abbreviated n-3 or ω-3) are so-called healthy fats. They belong to a group of unsaturated fatty acids that support many important systems and processes in the bodyand.

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The three main types of these valuable fats are: ALA, DHA and the eponymous EPAand. The body cannot make omega-3 fatty acids on its own and you must supply them from your diet. The best sources of these compounds are oily marine fish.

Omeega-3 fatty acids exhibit many health-promoting properties and have great potential in supporting the treatment and prevention of the onset of certain diseasesand. Their proper concentration in the body supports your physical health, mental health and even your appearanceand.

ALA, DHA and EPA work together for your health and well-being, but separately they also have their own missions. Find out about the special tasks of EPA acid.

Eicosolic acid action and properties

.

Eicosapentaenoic acid supports the function of systemsand

  • neural,
  • .
  • cardiovascular,
  • .
  • musculoskeletal,
  • .
  • immune,
  • .
  • hormonal,
  • .

How does EPA acid work?

.

Anti-inflammatory effect

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EPA acid produces eicosanoids - chemical compounds that help reduce inflammation in the body.

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Inflammation is the body's response to injury, infection, disease or substances that cause damage to tissues. It is a natural immune response to protect the body and initiate the healing or repair of tissues.
Aleksandra Cudna.

Alexandra Cudna Clinical nutritionist

.

Eicosanoids influence cardiovascular health, and calm inflammation in autoimmune diseases. 

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If you suffer from Hashimoto's disease, coeliac disease, endometriosis or any other autoimmune condition - get more EPA sources into your diet.
Aleksandra Cudna.

Alexandra Cudna Clinical nutritionist

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EPA in synergy with DHA exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, which may reduce the risk of infection and shorten its durationand.

Regulates lipid metabolism

.

EPA helps to reduce the concentration of triglycerides (one type of fat) in the blood. This is because it affects the enzymes that process lipids and thicken the bloodand.

This acid lowers total cholesterol and LDL 'bad cholesterol'. It also reduces lipids (fats) and their accumulation in the liver . It has a potential protective effect against cholesterol accumulationand.

.
Modern diet promotes high cholesterol. Adequate levels of EPA acid prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, which protects against diseases associated with lipid abnormalities such as atherosclerosis and stroke.
.
Aleksandra Cudna.

Alexandra Cudna Clinical nutritionist

.
.

EPA can reduce triglycerides without simultaneously raising LDL cholesterol levels in patients with very high triglyceride levels.

Interestingly, preparations with DHA or an omega-3 blend did not show this effectand.

.

Protects the cardiovascular system

.

EPA regulates blood pressure. It exhibits vasodilator properties, which helps to reduce vascular resistance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attackand.

.
EPA together with DHA improve vascular endothelial function and lower blood pressure. This translates into a cardioprotective effect. EPA and DHA acids protect the body against cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction.
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Aleksandra Cudna.

Alexandra Cudna Clinical nutritionist

.
.

One study from 2007 involved seniors over the age of 65. They were residents of the Mediterranean islands - a region where consumption of oily fish is high. The results showed that eating 300g of fish per week was associated with significantly lower: blood pressure, lipid profile and blood glucoseand.

Next time for Grandma and Grandpa's Day, instead of handing out chocolates, take them out for a fishy feast at the pub.

Influences on mental health

.

A review of studies has shown that taking EPA or fish oil containing at least 60% EPA orally reduces symptoms of depression in some people. Its effects are most effective when combined with antidepressantsand.

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Metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids, of which EPA acid is one, can increase concentrations of the 'happy hormone' serotonin. Its deficiency is key in the development of depression.
.
Marcin Zarzycki.

Marcin Zarzycki physician

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The concentration of EPA in the brain is 250-300 times lower than that of DHAand. Despite this, EPA acid is also important for your health and psyche. A 2019 meta-analysis found that it is EPA that has the greatest effect on reducing symptoms of depression of all omega-3 fatty acids 

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According to scientific studies, EPA acid taken alone can attenuate ADHD symptoms in children by improving concentration and alertness. However, researchers point out that even better effects can be achieved when EPA and DHA acids are combined.
.
Aleksandra Cudna.

Alexandra Cudna Clinical nutritionist

.
.

Promotes the appearance and condition of the skin

.

EPA acid is a good friend to your skin. It has a huge impact on what condition it is in and how it looks. EPA acidand:

  • prevents keratinisation of the skin,
  • .
  • protects the skin from premature ageing,
  • .
  • reduces the risk of acne,
  • .
  • may contribute to the formation of a robust skin lipid barrier,
  • .
  • may reduce skin inflammation,
  • .

In one 2003 study, participants who consumed 4 grams of EPA for 3 months increased their resistance to sunburn by 136%, while no significant changes were observed in the placebo groupand.

Of course, don't forget about UV filter creams, but think about skin health and take omega-3 acids with you on holiday or remember to have a portion of fish on holiday.

EPA acid - where does it occur?

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The best sources of EPA acid areand:

  • fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines and herring,
  • .
  • shrimp, mussels and oysters,
  • .
  • sea algae, phytoplankton, unicellular algae,
  • .
  • products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, e.g. drinks, yoghurts,
  • .
.
The omega-3 fatty acids, namely EPA and DHA, are produced by microalgae. Fish accumulate omega-3s by eating algae, which is why fish meat is a good source of these fatty acids.
.
Aleksandra Cudna.

Alexandra Cudna Clinical nutritionist

.
.

A good source of EPA acid is also provided by high-quality dietary supplements with omega-3 acids.

Natu.Care Omega-3 ᵀᴳ Premium

Natu.Care Omega-3 ᵀᴳ Premium
5.0
  • Omega-3 content: 750 mg (250 mg DHA + 500 mg EPA)
  • .
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement contains omega-3ᵀᴳ, or omega-3 acids in the form of trójglyceridesów. Scientific studies suggest that this form of fatty acidsós up to 2 times better absorbed than the estersós present in many dietary supplements on the market. This means that you are assured of their effectiveness and of supplying yourself with valuable omega acids.

Fatty acids omega-3 are derived from wild anchovy oil. It is a rich source of healthy fats that are essential for the health of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as the proper function of vision, joints muscles.

Scientific research suggests that wild anchovies are a good source of healthy fats.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The formula contains a total of 750 mg of EPA+DHA acidsós, which is three times higher than the recommended minimum of 250 mg for the Polish population. Omega-3 TG Premium has studies indicating that its TOTOX is 9, which is a very good result.

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acidsóis recommended for anyone who does not eat 1–2 portions (approximately 300 g) of oily fish per week. Children during growth, seniors, physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, as well as patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease also have an increased need.

Pros and cons

The dietary supplement contains omega-3ᵀᴳ, or omega-3 acids in the form of trójglyceridesów. Scientific studies suggest that this form of fatty acidsós up to 2 times better absorbed than the estersós present in many dietary supplements on the market. This means that you are assured of their effectiveness and of supplying yourself with valuable omega acids.

Fatty acids omega-3 are derived from wild anchovy oil. It is a rich source of healthy fats that are essential for the health of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as the proper function of vision, joints muscles.

Scientific research suggests that wild anchovies are a good source of healthy fats.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The formula contains a total of 750 mg of EPA+DHA acidsós, which is three times higher than the recommended minimum of 250 mg for the Polish population. Omega-3 TG Premium has studies indicating that its TOTOX is 9, which is a very good result.

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acidsóis recommended for anyone who does not eat 1–2 portions (approximately 300 g) of oily fish per week. Children during growth, seniors, physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, as well as patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease also have an increased need.

Additional information

The dietary supplement contains omega-3ᵀᴳ, or omega-3 acids in the form of trójglyceridesów. Scientific studies suggest that this form of fatty acidsós up to 2 times better absorbed than the estersós present in many dietary supplements on the market. This means that you are assured of their effectiveness and of supplying yourself with valuable omega acids.

Fatty acids omega-3 are derived from wild anchovy oil. It is a rich source of healthy fats that are essential for the health of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as the proper function of vision, joints muscles.

Scientific research suggests that wild anchovies are a good source of healthy fats.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The formula contains a total of 750 mg of EPA+DHA acidsós, which is three times higher than the recommended minimum of 250 mg for the Polish population. Omega-3 TG Premium has studies indicating that its TOTOX is 9, which is a very good result.

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acidsóis recommended for anyone who does not eat 1–2 portions (approximately 300 g) of oily fish per week. Children during growth, seniors, physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, as well as patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease also have an increased need.

Expert opinion

The dietary supplement contains omega-3ᵀᴳ, or omega-3 acids in the form of trójglyceridesów. Scientific studies suggest that this form of fatty acidsós up to 2 times better absorbed than the estersós present in many dietary supplements on the market. This means that you are assured of their effectiveness and of supplying yourself with valuable omega acids.

Fatty acids omega-3 are derived from wild anchovy oil. It is a rich source of healthy fats that are essential for the health of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as the proper function of vision, joints muscles.

Scientific research suggests that wild anchovies are a good source of healthy fats.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The formula contains a total of 750 mg of EPA+DHA acidsós, which is three times higher than the recommended minimum of 250 mg for the Polish population. Omega-3 TG Premium has studies indicating that its TOTOX is 9, which is a very good result.

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acidsóis recommended for anyone who does not eat 1–2 portions (approximately 300 g) of oily fish per week. Children during growth, seniors, physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, as well as patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease also have an increased need.

.

Natu.Care Omega-3

Natu.Care Omega-3
4.6
  • Omega-3 content: 550 mg (220 mg DHA + 330 mg acid EPA)
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement contains high-quality fatty acids omega-3 from anchovy oil. It is a naturally rich source of healthy fats that are essential for cardiovascular, immune and nervous system health, as well as proper function of eyesight, joints muscles.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The dietary supplement contains 550 mg EPA+DHA per daily serving. This is more than double the official recommendations for the Polish population, whichóre suggesting an intake of at least 250 mg per day.

Supplementation of EPA+DHA is a good way to support healthy sleep.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acidsós is advisable if you do not consume 1–2 portions (approx. 300 g) of oily fish per week. There is also an increased need for physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, seniors, children during growth spurts and patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease.

Pros and cons

The dietary supplement contains high-quality fatty acids omega-3 from anchovy oil. It is a naturally rich source of healthy fats that are essential for cardiovascular, immune and nervous system health, as well as proper function of eyesight, joints muscles.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The dietary supplement contains 550 mg EPA+DHA per daily serving. This is more than double the official recommendations for the Polish population, whichóre suggesting an intake of at least 250 mg per day.

Supplementation of EPA+DHA is a good way to support healthy sleep.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acidsós is advisable if you do not consume 1–2 portions (approx. 300 g) of oily fish per week. There is also an increased need for physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, seniors, children during growth spurts and patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease.

Additional information

The dietary supplement contains high-quality fatty acids omega-3 from anchovy oil. It is a naturally rich source of healthy fats that are essential for cardiovascular, immune and nervous system health, as well as proper function of eyesight, joints muscles.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The dietary supplement contains 550 mg EPA+DHA per daily serving. This is more than double the official recommendations for the Polish population, whichóre suggesting an intake of at least 250 mg per day.

Supplementation of EPA+DHA is a good way to support healthy sleep.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acidsós is advisable if you do not consume 1–2 portions (approx. 300 g) of oily fish per week. There is also an increased need for physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, seniors, children during growth spurts and patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease.

Expert opinion

The dietary supplement contains high-quality fatty acids omega-3 from anchovy oil. It is a naturally rich source of healthy fats that are essential for cardiovascular, immune and nervous system health, as well as proper function of eyesight, joints muscles.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The dietary supplement contains 550 mg EPA+DHA per daily serving. This is more than double the official recommendations for the Polish population, whichóre suggesting an intake of at least 250 mg per day.

Supplementation of EPA+DHA is a good way to support healthy sleep.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acidsós is advisable if you do not consume 1–2 portions (approx. 300 g) of oily fish per week. There is also an increased need for physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, seniors, children during growth spurts and patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease.

.

Simple composition

Pharmovit Omega 3 Max

Pharmovit Omega 3 Max
4.9
  • Content omega-3 acids550 mg (220 mg DHA + 330 mg EPA)
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Apart from DHA and EPA, you will find absolutely nothing here. It is therefore a great supplement for people who want to supplement their omega acids and do not need any additional active ingredients.

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

The sourceóof the omega-3 fatty acids in the preparation is fish oil.

.
Pros and cons

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Apart from DHA and EPA, you will find absolutely nothing here. It is therefore a great supplement for people who want to supplement their omega acids and do not need any additional active ingredients.

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

The sourceóof the omega-3 fatty acids in the preparation is fish oil.

.
Additional information

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Apart from DHA and EPA, you will find absolutely nothing here. It is therefore a great supplement for people who want to supplement their omega acids and do not need any additional active ingredients.

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

The sourceóof the omega-3 fatty acids in the preparation is fish oil.

.
User review

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Apart from DHA and EPA, you will find absolutely nothing here. It is therefore a great supplement for people who want to supplement their omega acids and do not need any additional active ingredients.

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

The sourceóof the omega-3 fatty acids in the preparation is fish oil.

.

With vitamin D3

Primabiotic Omega + vitamin D3

Primabiotic Omega + vitamin D3
4.3
  • Omega-3 content: 600 mg (240 mg DHA + 360 mg EPA)
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin D3
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 or 2 capsules daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 or 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The combination of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and vitamin D3 will strengthen your nervous system and eyesight. It will improve your brain function and have a beneficial effect on your cardiovascular system. Thanks to the high dose of vitamin D, supplementation with the preparation will increase immunity and have a beneficial effect on your muscles and bones.

.

Taking the product will also improve your resistance to stress and soothe your nervous system.

.
Pros and cons

The combination of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and vitamin D3 will strengthen your nervous system and eyesight. It will improve your brain function and have a beneficial effect on your cardiovascular system. Thanks to the high dose of vitamin D, supplementation with the preparation will increase immunity and have a beneficial effect on your muscles and bones.

.

Taking the product will also improve your resistance to stress and soothe your nervous system.

.
Additional information

The combination of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and vitamin D3 will strengthen your nervous system and eyesight. It will improve your brain function and have a beneficial effect on your cardiovascular system. Thanks to the high dose of vitamin D, supplementation with the preparation will increase immunity and have a beneficial effect on your muscles and bones.

.

Taking the product will also improve your resistance to stress and soothe your nervous system.

.
User review

The combination of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and vitamin D3 will strengthen your nervous system and eyesight. It will improve your brain function and have a beneficial effect on your cardiovascular system. Thanks to the high dose of vitamin D, supplementation with the preparation will increase immunity and have a beneficial effect on your muscles and bones.

.

Taking the product will also improve your resistance to stress and soothe your nervous system.

.

Good for immunity

Omega + Vitamin D3 2000 IU

Omega + Vitamin D3 2000 IU
4.7
  • Content omega-3 acids: 600 mg (360 mg EPA + 240 mg DHA)
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin D3
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Omega-3 fatty acids with added vitamin D3 in good doses. The preparation fills the daily requirement of an adult for EPA and DHA as well as vitamin D. 

.

This is an interesting combination that canóbe recommended to most Poles. The Ministry of Health recommends everyone to supplement vitamin D3. Omega-3 fatty acids are also on the podium when it comes to deficiencies of active ingredientsós in our country.

The dietary supplement from the Ministry of Health is an interesting combination that can be recommended to most Poles.

The dietary supplement from Aura Herbals supports the functioning of the mós brain, proper vision and the functioning of the immune system. The sourceóof omega-3 fatty acids is fish oil.

The supplement is a dietary supplement from Aura Herbals.

Pros and cons

Omega-3 fatty acids with added vitamin D3 in good doses. The preparation fills the daily requirement of an adult for EPA and DHA as well as vitamin D. 

.

This is an interesting combination that canóbe recommended to most Poles. The Ministry of Health recommends everyone to supplement vitamin D3. Omega-3 fatty acids are also on the podium when it comes to deficiencies of active ingredientsós in our country.

The dietary supplement from the Ministry of Health is an interesting combination that can be recommended to most Poles.

The dietary supplement from Aura Herbals supports the functioning of the mós brain, proper vision and the functioning of the immune system. The sourceóof omega-3 fatty acids is fish oil.

The supplement is a dietary supplement from Aura Herbals.

Additional information

Omega-3 fatty acids with added vitamin D3 in good doses. The preparation fills the daily requirement of an adult for EPA and DHA as well as vitamin D. 

.

This is an interesting combination that canóbe recommended to most Poles. The Ministry of Health recommends everyone to supplement vitamin D3. Omega-3 fatty acids are also on the podium when it comes to deficiencies of active ingredientsós in our country.

The dietary supplement from the Ministry of Health is an interesting combination that can be recommended to most Poles.

The dietary supplement from Aura Herbals supports the functioning of the mós brain, proper vision and the functioning of the immune system. The sourceóof omega-3 fatty acids is fish oil.

The supplement is a dietary supplement from Aura Herbals.

User review

Omega-3 fatty acids with added vitamin D3 in good doses. The preparation fills the daily requirement of an adult for EPA and DHA as well as vitamin D. 

.

This is an interesting combination that canóbe recommended to most Poles. The Ministry of Health recommends everyone to supplement vitamin D3. Omega-3 fatty acids are also on the podium when it comes to deficiencies of active ingredientsós in our country.

The dietary supplement from the Ministry of Health is an interesting combination that can be recommended to most Poles.

The dietary supplement from Aura Herbals supports the functioning of the mós brain, proper vision and the functioning of the immune system. The sourceóof omega-3 fatty acids is fish oil.

The supplement is a dietary supplement from Aura Herbals.

Restores balance

Sundose° Daily Balance°

Sundose° Daily Balance°
4.5
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Stress, exhaustion and tension? Daily Balance° restores calmóness and mental clarity even in the face of the greatest challenges. It is a formula that draws on the synergistic effects of ashwagandha and magnesium, further enhanced with a complex of B vitamins, for reduced feelings of fatigue and tiredness.

The omega-3 fatty acids in the Daily Balance° formula are derived from high-quality fish oil. The healthy fats contribute to the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, skinóry condition and support mental health.

Pros and cons

Stress, exhaustion and tension? Daily Balance° restores calmóness and mental clarity even in the face of the greatest challenges. It is a formula that draws on the synergistic effects of ashwagandha and magnesium, further enhanced with a complex of B vitamins, for reduced feelings of fatigue and tiredness.

The omega-3 fatty acids in the Daily Balance° formula are derived from high-quality fish oil. The healthy fats contribute to the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, skinóry condition and support mental health.

Additional information

Stress, exhaustion and tension? Daily Balance° restores calmóness and mental clarity even in the face of the greatest challenges. It is a formula that draws on the synergistic effects of ashwagandha and magnesium, further enhanced with a complex of B vitamins, for reduced feelings of fatigue and tiredness.

The omega-3 fatty acids in the Daily Balance° formula are derived from high-quality fish oil. The healthy fats contribute to the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, skinóry condition and support mental health.

User review

Stress, exhaustion and tension? Daily Balance° restores calmóness and mental clarity even in the face of the greatest challenges. It is a formula that draws on the synergistic effects of ashwagandha and magnesium, further enhanced with a complex of B vitamins, for reduced feelings of fatigue and tiredness.

The omega-3 fatty acids in the Daily Balance° formula are derived from high-quality fish oil. The healthy fats contribute to the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, skinóry condition and support mental health.

Vegan

Dr. Jacob's DHA + EPA

Dr. Jacob's DHA + EPA
4.1
  • Omega-3 content: 250 mg (83 mg EPA + 167 mg DHA)
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1–2 capsules
  • Sufficient for: 30 or 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement contains oil from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp. Algae are a healthy, plant-based alternative as a source of health-important fatty acids. 

DHA acid contributes to the maintenance of normal móbrain function and normal vision, and the combination of EPA + DHA supports heart health (with a daily intake of 250 mg DHA). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support immunity, mood and the condition and appearance of the skinóskin.

DHA supplementation is especially important when consuming little fish, so those on a plant-based diet should ensure supplementation as they are at risk of an omega-3 deficiency.

Pros and cons

The dietary supplement contains oil from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp. Algae are a healthy, plant-based alternative as a source of health-important fatty acids. 

DHA acid contributes to the maintenance of normal móbrain function and normal vision, and the combination of EPA + DHA supports heart health (with a daily intake of 250 mg DHA). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support immunity, mood and the condition and appearance of the skinóskin.

DHA supplementation is especially important when consuming little fish, so those on a plant-based diet should ensure supplementation as they are at risk of an omega-3 deficiency.

Additional information

The dietary supplement contains oil from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp. Algae are a healthy, plant-based alternative as a source of health-important fatty acids. 

DHA acid contributes to the maintenance of normal móbrain function and normal vision, and the combination of EPA + DHA supports heart health (with a daily intake of 250 mg DHA). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support immunity, mood and the condition and appearance of the skinóskin.

DHA supplementation is especially important when consuming little fish, so those on a plant-based diet should ensure supplementation as they are at risk of an omega-3 deficiency.

User review

The dietary supplement contains oil from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp. Algae are a healthy, plant-based alternative as a source of health-important fatty acids. 

DHA acid contributes to the maintenance of normal móbrain function and normal vision, and the combination of EPA + DHA supports heart health (with a daily intake of 250 mg DHA). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support immunity, mood and the condition and appearance of the skinóskin.

DHA supplementation is especially important when consuming little fish, so those on a plant-based diet should ensure supplementation as they are at risk of an omega-3 deficiency.

Good for immunity

Ibuvit D3 2000 + K2 MK-7 + OMEGA 3

Ibuvit D3 2000 + K2 MK-7 + OMEGA 3
4.1
  • Omega-3 content: 250 mg (200 mg DHA + 50 mg EPA)
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin D3vitamin K
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D3 and vitamin K. The formula supports the immune system, the functioning of the mós brain and vision. Moreover, its regular supplementation has a positive effect on teeth, as well as the use of calcium in the body, whichóry supports the musculoskeletal system. A daily portion provides 2000 IU of vitamin D3, which covers the requirement for an adult. Vitamin D3 supplementation is particularly recommendedólly during autumn and winter.

Pros and cons

A dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D3 and vitamin K. The formula supports the immune system, the functioning of the mós brain and vision. Moreover, its regular supplementation has a positive effect on teeth, as well as the use of calcium in the body, whichóry supports the musculoskeletal system. A daily portion provides 2000 IU of vitamin D3, which covers the requirement for an adult. Vitamin D3 supplementation is particularly recommendedólly during autumn and winter.

Additional information

A dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D3 and vitamin K. The formula supports the immune system, the functioning of the mós brain and vision. Moreover, its regular supplementation has a positive effect on teeth, as well as the use of calcium in the body, whichóry supports the musculoskeletal system. A daily portion provides 2000 IU of vitamin D3, which covers the requirement for an adult. Vitamin D3 supplementation is particularly recommendedólly during autumn and winter.

User review

A dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D3 and vitamin K. The formula supports the immune system, the functioning of the mós brain and vision. Moreover, its regular supplementation has a positive effect on teeth, as well as the use of calcium in the body, whichóry supports the musculoskeletal system. A daily portion provides 2000 IU of vitamin D3, which covers the requirement for an adult. Vitamin D3 supplementation is particularly recommendedólly during autumn and winter.

Naturally energising

Sundose° Daily Boost°

Sundose° Daily Boost°
4.5
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Daily Boost° will provide you with balanced energy in harmony with your body. It combines the proven power of Korean ginseng extract, which improves mental and physical performance, with vitamins and minerals carefully selected to maintain energy levels.

Pros and cons

Daily Boost° will provide you with balanced energy in harmony with your body. It combines the proven power of Korean ginseng extract, which improves mental and physical performance, with vitamins and minerals carefully selected to maintain energy levels.

Additional information

Daily Boost° will provide you with balanced energy in harmony with your body. It combines the proven power of Korean ginseng extract, which improves mental and physical performance, with vitamins and minerals carefully selected to maintain energy levels.

User review

Daily Boost° will provide you with balanced energy in harmony with your body. It combines the proven power of Korean ginseng extract, which improves mental and physical performance, with vitamins and minerals carefully selected to maintain energy levels.

Good for heart health

Dr. Jacob's DHA-EPA + Vitamin E

Dr. Jacob's DHA-EPA + Vitamin E
4.1
  • Content omega-3 acids255 mg (170 mg DHA + 85 mg EPA)
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin E
  • Form: liquid
  • .
  • Dose: 5 ml
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 50 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

DHA-EPA + Vitamin E is a vegan dietary supplement rich in omega-3 DHA and EPA acids from algae and vitamin E. The product supports the proper functioning of the brain, eyesight and heart, providing the necessary ingredientsóin an easily digestible form. 

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The product additionally provides extra virgin olive oil and bioactive vitamin E, which has an antioxidant effect.

Pros and cons

DHA-EPA + Vitamin E is a vegan dietary supplement rich in omega-3 DHA and EPA acids from algae and vitamin E. The product supports the proper functioning of the brain, eyesight and heart, providing the necessary ingredientsóin an easily digestible form. 

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The product additionally provides extra virgin olive oil and bioactive vitamin E, which has an antioxidant effect.

Additional information

DHA-EPA + Vitamin E is a vegan dietary supplement rich in omega-3 DHA and EPA acids from algae and vitamin E. The product supports the proper functioning of the brain, eyesight and heart, providing the necessary ingredientsóin an easily digestible form. 

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The product additionally provides extra virgin olive oil and bioactive vitamin E, which has an antioxidant effect.

User review

DHA-EPA + Vitamin E is a vegan dietary supplement rich in omega-3 DHA and EPA acids from algae and vitamin E. The product supports the proper functioning of the brain, eyesight and heart, providing the necessary ingredientsóin an easily digestible form. 

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The product additionally provides extra virgin olive oil and bioactive vitamin E, which has an antioxidant effect.

Pure composition

Aura Herbals Omega-3 370 DHA / 700 EPA

Aura Herbals Omega-3 370 DHA / 700 EPA
4.9
  • Omega-3 content: 370 mg DHA and 700 mg EPA
  • .
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: liquid
  • .
  • Dose: 5 or 10 ml
  • Sufficient for: 20 or 40 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Supplement in liquid form, rich in fatty acids from Atlantic mackerel, anchovies and Atlantic sardines. It is a rich source of omega-3 acids. The combination of DHA and EPA improves the functioning of your brain, heart, eyesight, supports the nervous system, influences the appearance of your skin and has a positive impact on your mental health.

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Pros and cons

Supplement in liquid form, rich in fatty acids from Atlantic mackerel, anchovies and Atlantic sardines. It is a rich source of omega-3 acids. The combination of DHA and EPA improves the functioning of your brain, heart, eyesight, supports the nervous system, influences the appearance of your skin and has a positive impact on your mental health.

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Additional information

Supplement in liquid form, rich in fatty acids from Atlantic mackerel, anchovies and Atlantic sardines. It is a rich source of omega-3 acids. The combination of DHA and EPA improves the functioning of your brain, heart, eyesight, supports the nervous system, influences the appearance of your skin and has a positive impact on your mental health.

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User review

Supplement in liquid form, rich in fatty acids from Atlantic mackerel, anchovies and Atlantic sardines. It is a rich source of omega-3 acids. The combination of DHA and EPA improves the functioning of your brain, heart, eyesight, supports the nervous system, influences the appearance of your skin and has a positive impact on your mental health.

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Kit

Sundose° For Stress Relief°

Sundose° For Stress Relief°
4.9
  • Omega-3 content: 220 mg of DHA acid and 330 mg of EPA acid
  • Additional active ingredients: ashwagandhamagnesiumvitamin B6vitamin D3
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 omega-3 capsule and 3 capsules of ashwagandha, magnesium, vitamins B6 and D3
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A set of two dietary supplements, the combination of which will take care of your mood and mental condition. Ashwagandha is known for its calming properties, while omega-3 fatty acids will further soothe the nervous system and take care of the smooth functioning of the brain.

Magnesium and Vitamin B6 are involved in the production and regulation of neurotransmittersós, and vitamin D3 may prevent dementia.

Pros and cons

A set of two dietary supplements, the combination of which will take care of your mood and mental condition. Ashwagandha is known for its calming properties, while omega-3 fatty acids will further soothe the nervous system and take care of the smooth functioning of the brain.

Magnesium and Vitamin B6 are involved in the production and regulation of neurotransmittersós, and vitamin D3 may prevent dementia.

Additional information

A set of two dietary supplements, the combination of which will take care of your mood and mental condition. Ashwagandha is known for its calming properties, while omega-3 fatty acids will further soothe the nervous system and take care of the smooth functioning of the brain.

Magnesium and Vitamin B6 are involved in the production and regulation of neurotransmittersós, and vitamin D3 may prevent dementia.

Expert opinion

A set of two dietary supplements, the combination of which will take care of your mood and mental condition. Ashwagandha is known for its calming properties, while omega-3 fatty acids will further soothe the nervous system and take care of the smooth functioning of the brain.

Magnesium and Vitamin B6 are involved in the production and regulation of neurotransmittersós, and vitamin D3 may prevent dementia.

Efficient

ALLNUTRITION Omega 3 Strong

ALLNUTRITION Omega 3 Strong
4.7
  • Content omega-3 acids550 mg (DHA 220 mg + EPA 330 mg)
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin E
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 90 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A dietary supplement with a solid portion of DHA and EPA – valuable for health and well-being omega-3 acidsós. Indicated especially for people on a plant-based diet, physically active people and seniors.

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The sourceóof omega-3 acids in this preparation is fish oil.

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Pros and cons

A dietary supplement with a solid portion of DHA and EPA – valuable for health and well-being omega-3 acidsós. Indicated especially for people on a plant-based diet, physically active people and seniors.

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The sourceóof omega-3 acids in this preparation is fish oil.

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Additional information

A dietary supplement with a solid portion of DHA and EPA – valuable for health and well-being omega-3 acidsós. Indicated especially for people on a plant-based diet, physically active people and seniors.

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The sourceóof omega-3 acids in this preparation is fish oil.

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User review

A dietary supplement with a solid portion of DHA and EPA – valuable for health and well-being omega-3 acidsós. Indicated especially for people on a plant-based diet, physically active people and seniors.

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The sourceóof omega-3 acids in this preparation is fish oil.

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Daily requirements

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Your need for eicosapentaenoic acid is related to supplying it together with DHA. The two fatty acids work together and complement each other - cut into the double.

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Ingredient

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Recommended intake for age group

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Eicosapentaenoic acid +

Docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA)

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7-24 months: DHA 100 mg/day only

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2-18 years: EPA+DHA 250 mg/day

>18 years: EPA + DHA 250 mg/day

EPA acid in pregnancy and during breastfeeding

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Omeega-3 fatty acids are crucial for the normal course of pregnancy and the health of mum and foetus. If you are expecting a baby, take a daily intake of 250 mg of DHA + EPA and an additional 100-200 mg of DHA.

You certainly want the best for you and your baby, so when choosing a product, choose dietary supplements with omega-3 fatty acids.

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The Polish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics does not recommend the use of "omega 3-6-9" preparations for pregnant women.
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Anna Parzynska.

Anna Parzynska physician, specialist in obstetrics and gynaecology

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You can read about why you should be careful in the article about omega 3-6-9.

While breastfeeding, also take care to eat a nutritious diet or supplementation. Recommendations are to consume 1-2 servings of fish per week or supplementation with 250 mg of EPA and DHA and 100-200 mg of DHA alone/day.

See also:

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EPA to DHA ratio

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The ratio of omega-3 fatty acids to omega-6 fatty acids is most important and ranges from 1:1 to 1:4and. In the modern diet it's unfortunately 1:14, which means your menu should include much more oily marine fish or omega-3 supplements (well, and less processed food, salty snacks and sweets).

And what about that EPA vs DHA?

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EPA and DHA are present in different proportions in food. E.g. in Norwegian salmon the ratio is approximately 1:2 and in standard fish oil it is 3:2and. In dietary supplements, the ratio is usually 1:1-3:1.

Researchers attempted to determine the ideal ratio of EPA to DHA in a 2021 meta-analysis. The conclusions were that there is no relationship between the ratio of EPA to DHA and lipid profile and heart rate. 

But

But - the higher the EPA to DHA ratio, the greater the reduction in inflammation in the bodyand. However, there is no specific indication. Bottom line - simply ensure an adequate supply of omega-3.

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EPA deficiency

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Of all omega acids, the most common is deficiency of omega-3 acids, including EPAand. There is no culture of eating fish in Poland, and you supply the other fatty acids from your diet - unfortunately often in excessand.

The omega-3 acids and omega-6 are in a fierce battle for a place in your body. Unfortunately, omega-3s are losing out, crushed by unhealthy sources of omega-6s. We are much more likely to reach for processed foods, unhealthy snacks and sweets than for oily fish. This can lead to too few healthy fats in the body.

Symptoms of EPA deficiency include and:

Can you be EPA deficient with normal DHA levels? Nutritionist Aleksandra Cudna explains:

DHA deficiency.

EPA and DHA acids are contained in fish and dietary supplements in similar amounts, so it is not possible for a single deficiency of either acid to occur. 

Additionally, the body can convert EPA to DHA. Admittedly, this conversion is not very efficient, but it does exist. The two acids therefore go hand in hand, and if a deficiency is revealed - it is usually a deficiency of both EPA and DHA.

DHA and EPA are both in short supply.

DHA supplementation raises EPA concentrations, but EPA supplementation ... does not raise DHA.

One study found that taking EPA alone increased its concentration in the blood, but did not increase DHAand.

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Excess EPA

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Luckily, excess EPA is rare - it is impossible to overdose on omega-3 fatty acids from food. You would have to eat 2.5kg of salmon a day. I'm a fan of this fish, but even I can't squeeze that much in!"

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Over-supply of omega-3 fatty acids, including EPA, occurs most often from unwise and excessive supplementation. Overdose is rare but possible.
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Dr Witold Tomaszewski.

Witold Tomaszewskidoctor of medical sciences

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If you overdo it with supplements, however, or by some miracle are a really big fan of salmon, you may experience unpleasant symptoms.

Excess EPA acid and:

  • reduces blood clotting,
  • .
  • causes nosebleeds,
  • .
  • increases blood sugar levels,
  • .
  • dangerously lowers blood pressure,
  • .
  • increases insomnia,
  • .
  • causes gastrointestinal disorders such as reflux, diarrhea, bloating, belching, nausea,
  • .

See also:

Summary

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In summary

  • EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) is one of the omega-3 fatty acids.
  • EPA has an anti-inflammatory effect.
  • EPA has an anti-inflammatory effect, contributes to cardiovascular health, skin condition and proper lipid management.
  • EPA has an anti-inflammatory effect, contributes to cardiovascular health, skin condition and proper lipid management.
  • An adequate concentration of EPA acid has a positive effect on mood and mental health.
  • .
  • EPA acid is not produced by the body and you must provide it with your diet. 
  • .
  • The best sources of EPA are fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines.
  • .
  • EPA deficiency manifests as skin deterioration, joint pain and stiffness, hair loss and lowered mood.
  • .
  • Excess EPA manifests itself in blood clotting disorders, nose bleeds and gastrointestinal complaints.
  • .
  • You should consume 250 mg of EPA+DHA acids per day - that's 1 or 2 servings of fish per week.

FAQ

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. Which omega acids are the healthiest?.

All omega acids are important and we should provide them from a nutritious diet. However, the omega-3 acids - DHA and EPA - have the most health-promoting properties. They comprehensively affect the functioning of many systems in the body. Their source is primarily oily marine fish.

Omega-6 acids and omega-9 are also crucial to health, but they are more easily obtained from food and deficiency is not as common as with omega-3 acids.

. What is EPA?.

EPA stands for eicosapentaenoic acid. It is a type of healthy omega-3 fatty acid that is found in certain types of fish such as tuna, salmon, mackerel and sardines. 

EPA acid has many health-promoting benefits and has been shown to reduce inflammation in the body and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. It can also be obtained from high-quality dietary supplements.

. What is the difference between EPA and DHA?.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (docosahexaenoic) are the two most important types of omega-3 fatty acids. They differ in functionality and chemical structure. EPA acid is more likely to be converted into chemical components that help reduce inflammation in the body. 

DHA acid plays an important role in the structure of brain cells, the retina and the effects on the nervous, cardiovascular, motor and immune systems.

. Is EPA and DHA an omega-3?.

Yes, EPA and DHA are types of omega-3 fatty acids. They are called long-chain omega-3 fatty acids because they contain more than 12 carbon atoms. Other omega-3 fatty acids include alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA).

. What is more important - DHA or EPA?.

Both the fatty acids DHA and EPA are important for the proper functioning of the body. Each has its own roles in maintaining health, e.g. DHA is particularly important for brain and eye development in babies and children, and EPA is associated with reducing inflammation in the body.

. Where is EPA acid?.

EPA acid is mainly found in marine food sources such as oily fish e.g. salmon, tuna, sardines and mackerel. It can also be found in some marine algae. High-quality dietary supplements with omega-3 acids are also a good source of EPA acid.

. Is EPA acid harmful?.

EPA acid is usually considered safe to consume according to doses recommended by health organisations. However, people with haemorrhagic diathesis or seafood allergies should consult a specialist before starting EPA acid supplementation. There are also some drug interactions that should be discussed with your doctor.

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Sources

. See all.

AbuMweis, S., Abu Omran, D., Al-Shami, I., & Jew, S. (2021). The ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid as a modulator for the cardio-metabolic effects of omega-3 supplements: A meta-regression of randomized clinical trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 57, 102662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2021.102662

Allam-Ndoul, B., Guénard, F., Barbier, O., & Vohl, M.-C. (2017). Effect of different concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids on stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Genes & Nutrition, 12(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12263-017-0554-6

Calder, P. C. (2018). Very long-chain n-3 fatty acids and human health: Fact, fiction and the future. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 77(1), 52-72. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665117003950

Calder, P. C., Waitzberg, D. L., Klek, S., & Martindale, R. G. (2020). Lipids in Parenteral Nutrition: Biological Aspects. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 44(S1), S21-S27. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpen.1756

Chang, J. P.-C., Su, K.-P., Mondelli, V., Satyanarayanan, S. K., Yang, H.-T., Chiang, Y.-J., Chen, H.-T., & Pariante, C. M. (2019). High-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) improves attention and vigilance in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and low endogenous EPA levels. Translational Psychiatry, 9, 303. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0633-0

Crupi, R., & Cuzzocrea, S. (2022). Role of EPA in Inflammation: Mechanisms, Effects, and Clinical Relevance. Biomolecules, 12(2), 242. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12020242

Flock, M. R., Harris, W. S., & Kris-Etherton, P. M. (2013). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: Time to establish a dietary reference intake. Nutrition Reviews, 71(10), 692-707. https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12071

González-Hedström, D., Amor, S., de la Fuente-Fernández, M., Tejera-Muñoz, A., Priego, T., Martín, A. I., López-Calderón, A., Inarejos-García, A. M., García-Villalón, Á. L., & Granado, M. (2020). A Mixture of Algae and Extra Virgin Olive Oils Attenuates the Cardiometabolic Alterations Associated with Aging in Male Wistar Rats. Antioxidants, 9(6), Article 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060483

Greenberg, J. A., Bell, S. J., & Ausdal, W. V. (2008). Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1(4), 162-169.

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Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Nutrition, T., Erdman, J., Oria, M., & Pillsbury, L. (2011). Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA). In Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute Health Outcomes in Military Personnel. National Academies Press (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209320/

Kendall, A. C., Kiezel-Tsugunova, M., Brownbridge, L. C., Harwood, J. L., & Nicolaou, A. (2017). Lipid functions in skin: Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cutaneous ceramides, in a human skin organ culture model. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, 1859(9, Part B), 1679-1689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.03.016

Kim, H. H., Cho, S., Lee, S., Kim, K. H., Cho, K. H., Eun, H. C., & Chung, J. H. (2006). Photoprotective and anti-skin-aging effects of eicosapentaenoic acid in human skin in vivo. Journal of Lipid Research, 47(5), 921-930. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M500420-JLR200

Liao, Y., Xie, B., Zhang, H., He, Q., Guo, L., Subramanieapillai, M., Fan, B., Lu, C., & McIntyre, R. S. (2019). Efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in depression: A meta-analysis. Translational Psychiatry, 9, 190. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0515-5

Mano, Y., Kato, A., Fukuda, N., Yamada, K., & Yanagimoto, K. (2022). Influence of Ingestion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil on Oxidative Stress at the Menstrual Phase: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Trial. Women's Health Reports, 3(1), 643-651. https://doi.org/10.1089/whr.2022.0003

Pahwa, R., Goyal, A., & Jialal, I. (2023). Chronic Inflammation. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493173/

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Parke, M. A., Perez-Sanchez, A., Zamil, D. H., & Katta, R. (2021). Diet and Skin Barrier: The Role of Dietary Interventions on Skin Barrier Function. Dermatology Practical & Conceptual, 11(1), e2021132. https://doi.org/10.5826/dpc.1101a132

Pilkington, S. M., Rhodes, L. E., Al-Aasswad, N. M. I., Massey, K. A., & Nicolaou, A. (2014). Impact of EPA ingestion on COX- and LOX-mediated eicosanoid synthesis in skin with and without a pro-inflammatory UVR challenge - Report of a randomised controlled study in humans. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 58(3), 580-590. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201300405

Rajaram, S. (2014). Health benefits of plant-derived α-linolenic acid123. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100, 443S-448S. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.071514

Sarkkinen, E. S., Savolainen, M. J., Taurio, J., Marvola, T., & Bruheim, I. (2018). Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on safety and tolerability of the krill powder product in overweight subjects with moderately elevated blood pressure. Lipids in Health and Disease, 17(1), 287. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-018-0935-x

Shang, T., Liu, L., Zhou, J., Zhang, M., Hu, Q., Fang, M., Wu, Y., Yao, P., & Gong, Z. (2017). Protective effects of various ratios of DHA/EPA supplementation on high-fat diet-induced liver damage in mice. Lipids in Health and Disease, 16(1), 65. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-017-0461-2

Song, Y., Zhang, L.-J., Li, H., Gu, Y., Li, F.-F., Jiang, L.-N., Liu, F., Ye, J., & Li, Q. (2013). Polyunsaturated fatty acid relatively decreases cholesterol content in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cell: Partly correlates with expression profile of CIDE and PAT members. Lipids in Health and Disease, 12(1), 111. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-12-111

Sublette, M. E., Ellis, S. P., Geant, A. L., & Mann, J. J. (2011). Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) in Clinical Trials in Depression. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(12), 11703. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.10m06634

Wijendran, V., & Hayes, K. C. (2004). DIETARY n-6 AND n-3 FATTY ACID BALANCE AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH. Annual Review of Nutrition, 24(1), 597-615. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.24.012003.132106

Zhong, Y., & Shahidi, F. (2011). Lipophilized Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Derivatives as Novel Antioxidants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(12), 6526-6533. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf201050j

Wawryszuk, N. (2023). Omega acids. Everything you need to know (B. Turczynski, Ed.; 1st ed.). Natu.Care. https://books.google.com/books?vid=9788396887818

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Editorials

Meet the team
Nina Wawryszuk - Author

Natu.Care Editor

Nina Wawryszuk specialises in sports supplementation, strength training and psychosomatics. On a daily basis, in addition to writing articles for Natu.Care, as a personal trainer she helps athletes improve their performance through training, diet and supplementation.

Alexandra Cudna-Bartnicka - Reviewed by

Clinical nutritionist

Verified by an expert

Clinical nutritionist whose main area of interest is nutrition in diseases and functional disorders of the digestive system.

Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited by

Editor-in-Chief

Bartłomiej Turczyński is the editor-in-chief of Natu.Care. He is responsible for the quality of the content created on Natu.Care, among others, and ensures that all articles are based on sound scientific research and consulted with industry specialists.

Ludwig Jelonek - Fact-checking

Natu.Care Editor

Ludwik Jelonek is the author of more than 2,500 texts published on leading portals. His content has found its way into services such as Ostrovit and Kobieta Onet. At Natu.Care, Ludwik educates people in the most important area of life - health.

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