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EPA and DHA acids - effects, requirements + ranking

The EPA and DHA duo is extremely important for your body. Are you taking care of their amount in your diet?

Nina Wawryszuk - AuthorAuthorNina Wawryszuk
Nina Wawryszuk - Author
AuthorNina Wawryszuk
Natu.Care Editor

Nina Wawryszuk specialises in sports supplementation, strength training and psychosomatics. On a daily basis, in addition to writing articles for Natu.Care, as a personal trainer she helps athletes improve their performance through training, diet and supplementation.

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Julia Skrajda - Reviewed byReviewed byJulia Skrajda
Verified by an expert
Julia Skrajda - Reviewed by
Reviewed byJulia Skrajda
Clinical nutritionist

A clinical nutritionist, she works in the profession and creates personalised menus and recommendations for disease entities.

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Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited byEdited byBartholomew Turczynski
Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited by
Edited byBartholomew Turczynski
Editor-in-Chief

Bartłomiej Turczyński is the editor-in-chief of Natu.Care. He is responsible for the quality of the content created on Natu.Care, among others, and ensures that all articles are based on sound scientific research and consulted with industry specialists.

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Emilia Moskal - Fact-checkingFact-checkingEmilia Moskal
Emilia Moskal - Fact-checking
Fact-checkingEmilia Moskal
Natu.Care Editor

Emilia Moskal specialises in medical and psychological texts, including content for medical entities. She is a fan of simple language and reader-friendly communication. At Natu.Care, she writes educational articles.

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EPA and DHA acids - effects, requirements + ranking
29 April, 2024
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20 min
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In your body, it is hard to find such a harmonious and multitasking duo as EPA and DHA. These omega-3 fatty acids affect the function of many systems and organs. Even right now, they support your concentration, heartbeat and mood - especially if you're reading this article on a Monday morning at work.

The best sources of EPA and DHA in the diet are oily marine fish. But let's not kid ourselves - they don't taste good to everyone, and prices can be daunting. However, you need to provide your body with these acids because you need them.

With nutritionist Julia Skrajda, we will explain why you should find room in your diet for these valuable omega-3 acids - from fish or good dietary supplements.

.

From this article you will learn:

  • How EPA and DHA acids affect your health.
  • .
  • What their deficiency results in.
  • .
  • How to provide yourself with EPA and DHA.
  • .
  • What are the best dietary supplements with omega-3.
  • .

See also:

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Omega-3 fatty acids

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Omega-3 fatty acids (also known as n-3 or ω-3) are essential fatty acids (EFAs) that support many systems and organs in the body. They are the so-called healthy fats your body needs to function properlyand.The body cannot make omega-3 fatty acids on its own, so you must supply them from food. The three types of n-3 crucial to your health areand:

  • DHA (docosahexaenoic acid),
  • .
  • EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid),
  • ALA (alpha-linolenic acid).
.
The omega-3 acids EPA and DHA are mainly found in oily marine fish, while ALA is found primarily in plants. ALA acid is converted in the body into other forms of omega-3, e.g. precisely into EPA and DHA, although this conversion is limited.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

.
.

Since the three omega-3 fatty acids are important, why are we only focusing on EPA and DHA? Theoretically, ALA can produce these other two acids... but only 0.5-5%. Nutritionist Julia Skrajda explains:

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Alpha-linolenic acid has its valuable properties for the body, but humans are more likely to be deficient in DHA and EPA. ALA acids are acknowledged to be ubiquitously present in foods, so their deficiency is a rare problem. In contrast, in our latitude, sources of EPA and DHA are scarce and severely limited in both availability and intake.

The average Pole eats few products rich in omega-3, while providing excessive amounts of omega-6. Consumed in excess, they will compete with EPA and DHA for absorption and assimilation in your body, because they share the same metabolic pathway. So much is said about EPA and DHA because they are so important, and Poles can suffer from a deficiency.

The strength of EPA and DHA lies in their synergistic action. They exhibit similar actions in the body, but can perform their tasks in different ways. Read below how each supports your body.

Eicosolic acid

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Eicosapentaenoic acid supports the normal function of the systemand:

  • nervous system,
  • .
  • cardiovascular,
  • .
  • musculoskeletal,
  • .
  • immune,
  • .
  • hormonal,
  • .

His correct amount in the body also affects mental health and the condition and appearance of the skinand.

Properties of EPA

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Alone or in concert with other omega-3 fatty acids, EPA acid affects:

.

Immune system

.

One of the most important roles that EPA acid plays is the production of eicosanoids. These are chemical compounds that help to reduce inflammation created in the body. EPA can therefore calm inflammation in autoimmune diseasesand.

.
Patients with Hashimoto's disease, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or other diseases with an autoimmune mechanism of the immune system should take care to increase their dietary intake of EPA acid.
.
Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

.
.

EPA acid in synergy with DHA acid exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, which may reduce the risk of infection and shorten its durationand.

Cardiovascular system

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EPA acid has been shown to have vasodilating properties, helping to reduce vascular resistance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular conditions such as heart attack, coronary heart disease and hypertension .

Tell it to grandma and grandpa

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In a well-known 2007 study, researchers looked at the diet of seniors over 65 living on Mediterranean islands. This is a region where oily marine fish are very common on the plate. The results suggested that eating 300g of fish per week was associated with significantly lower blood pressure, lipid profile and blood glucose levels in the seniorsand.

Sugar-insulin management

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EPA acid lowers total cholesterol and LDL 'bad cholesterol'. It also reduces lipids (fats) and their accumulation in the liver. It can also potentially protect against the harmful accumulation of cholesteroland. This is because it affects the enzymes that process lipids and thicken the bloodand.

Mental health

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Metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids, of which EPA is one, can increase concentrations of the 'happy hormone' serotonin. Its deficiency is crucial in the development of depressionand.

A 2019 meta-analysis found that taking EPA acid or fish oil containing at least 60% EPA orally reduces symptoms of depression in some people. However, the effect of EPA acid is most effective when combined with antidepressantsand.

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EPA acid helps stabilise mood in people with bipolar disorder.
.
Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

.
.

Skin appearance and condition

.

EPA influences what state your skin is in. The right concentration of this acidand:

    .
  • prevents dryness and keratosis of the skin,
  • .
  • protects the skin from premature ageing,
  • .
  • reduces the risk of acne,
  • .
  • may contribute to the formation of the skin's lipid barrier,
  • .
  • may reduce skin inflammation,
  • .

In one study involving 42 people, participants who consumed 4 grams of EPA acid for 3 months increased their resistance to sunburn by 136%, while no significant changes were observed in the placebo groupand.

Properties of DHA acid

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Docosahexaenoic acid is part of every cell in your body and an important structural component of your skin, eyes and brainand. Its proper concentration determines normal human development already in the prenatal period, and then throughout life it affects many systems and organs .

What exactly does DHA acid affect in your body?

.

Eyesight

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Already in fetal life, DHA acid is an important component of the retina and accounts for up to 93% of all the omega-3 acids contained thereand. It is essential for the normal development of the organ of vision.

DHA helps activate rhodopsin, a membrane protein in the rods of the eyes. Rhodopsin helps the brain perceive images by altering the permeability, fluidity and thickness of the eye membranesand.

Neural system

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DHA regulates the function of nerve cells and ensures the formation of sufficient connections between neurons. This promotes better working of thought processes, concentration and memoryand.

Adequate levels of DHA in the body have a positive impact on a child's intellectual, psychomotor and cognitive development . It is also important for seniors - a diet rich in DHA is associated with a reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer's diseaseand.

.
Scientific studies suggest positive effects of omega-3 fatty acids in neurodegenerative diseases by, among other things, inhibiting brain cell death.
.
Marcin Zarzycki.

Marcin Zarzycki physician

.
.

Immune system

.

DHA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, which translates into a better defence for your body. This acid can reduce the production of molecules and substances associated with inflammation and help with tissue repair and healing. Some small studies also suggest that adequate concentrations of DHA may inhibit the growth of cancer cellsand.

DHA acid will not reduce the incidence of infections or colds, but it will be an effective aid in the fight against various conditions.

.
DHA is unlikely to help fight pathogens or cancer cells, but it will stimulate and support the immune system to function. For the immune system, this acid is like "doping".
.
Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

.
.
.

Cardiovascular system

.

DHA can reduce the risk of heart disease by, among other things, lowering triglycerides, blood pressure and so-called bad LDL cholesteroland. According to the Central Statistical Office, cardiovascular diseases were the most common cause of death in Poland in 2021. They accounted for more than 35% of all deaths among men and women .

.
LDL cholesterol contributes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. DHA helps maintain the elasticity of blood vessels, which prevents blockages and heart disease.
.
Dr Witold Tomaszewski.

Witold Tomaszewskidoctor of medical sciences

.
.

Physical activity, a nutritious diet and adequate omega-3 fatty acids can prevent diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease and heart attackand.

Joints, muscles and bones

.

According to scientific studies, DHA and EPA supplementation reduces joint pain and stiffness in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Healthy fats that include DHA increase the amount of calcium in bones, which can strengthen and improve their structure. Omega-3 fatty acids are particularly important in the diets of seniors, who are at risk of osteoporosis and higher risk of bone fracturesand.

.
Omega 3 fatty acids play an important role in the absorption of vitamin D3, which regulates calcium-phosphate metabolism, which is important for bone health, normal bone density and dental health.
.
Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

.
.

Omega-3 fatty acids should also not be missing from the diet of physically active people. Omega-3s have a positive effect on the growth of muscle mass. One scientific study found that weekly supplementation with 3g of omega-3 fatty acids per day reduced muscle damage and soreness after exerciseand.

.
Omega-3s can improve athletic performance directly - through potentially positive effects on recovery, muscle strength and anaerobic endurance, and indirectly reduce the risk of injury or infection that can exclude you from training.
.
Marek Prawdzik.

Marek Prawdzik personal trainer and training author

.

Pregnancy

.

The physiological role of DHA in the body applies throughout life, but the prenatal period may be the most relevantand. Doctors particularly emphasise the key impact of DHA acid on the development of the child's central nervous system and visual system .

.
Adequate amounts of DHA acid in pregnant women minimise the risk of premature birth and increase the chance of normal postnatal weight of the baby.
.
Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

.
.

The importance of DHA in prenatal life is so well documented that the European Commission has allowed food manufacturers to use the statement: "Maternal consumption of DHA supports normal brain and vision development in the foetus", for products that are a significant source of this ingredientand.

See also:

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EPA + DHA, the most potent duo

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Summary - EPA and DHA acids act on your body through different mechanisms, but the most important for your health and well-being is their synergy.

Adequate amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet

.
  • supports the nervous, cardiovascular, immune system,
  • .
  • influences mental health and may prevent the onset of depression,
  • .
  • controls inflammation in the body,
  • .
  • improves the body's regeneration,
  • .
  • keeps the organ of vision functioning properly,
  • .
  • supports the appearance and condition of the skin,
  • .
  • reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome,
  • .
  • is crucial already in prenatal life for the child to develop properlyand.
  • .

Best dietary supplements with EPA + DHA

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The best EPA + DHA acids are Natu.Care Premium Omega-3 TG. The supplement has laboratory tests and provides 500 mg of EPA and 250 DHA in the form of highly absorbable triglycerides, which are absorbed up to 2 times better than the popular esters. The pack contains 60 capsules and lasts for 2 months.

Natu.Care Omega-3 ᵀᴳ Premium

Natu.Care Omega-3 ᵀᴳ Premium
5.0
  • Omega-3 content: 750 mg (250 mg DHA + 500 mg EPA)
  • .
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement contains omega-3ᵀᴳ, or omega-3 acids in the form of trójglyceridesów. Scientific studies suggest that this form of fatty acidsós up to 2 times better absorbed than the estersós present in many dietary supplements on the market. This means that you are assured of their effectiveness and of supplying yourself with valuable omega acids.

Fatty acids omega-3 are derived from wild anchovy oil. It is a rich source of healthy fats that are essential for the health of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as the proper function of vision, joints muscles.

Scientific research suggests that wild anchovies are a good source of healthy fats.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The formula contains a total of 750 mg of EPA+DHA acidsós, which is three times higher than the recommended minimum of 250 mg for the Polish population. Omega-3 TG Premium has studies indicating that its TOTOX is 9, which is a very good result.

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acidsóis recommended for anyone who does not eat 1–2 portions (approximately 300 g) of oily fish per week. Children during growth, seniors, physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, as well as patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease also have an increased need.

Pros and cons

The dietary supplement contains omega-3ᵀᴳ, or omega-3 acids in the form of trójglyceridesów. Scientific studies suggest that this form of fatty acidsós up to 2 times better absorbed than the estersós present in many dietary supplements on the market. This means that you are assured of their effectiveness and of supplying yourself with valuable omega acids.

Fatty acids omega-3 are derived from wild anchovy oil. It is a rich source of healthy fats that are essential for the health of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as the proper function of vision, joints muscles.

Scientific research suggests that wild anchovies are a good source of healthy fats.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The formula contains a total of 750 mg of EPA+DHA acidsós, which is three times higher than the recommended minimum of 250 mg for the Polish population. Omega-3 TG Premium has studies indicating that its TOTOX is 9, which is a very good result.

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acidsóis recommended for anyone who does not eat 1–2 portions (approximately 300 g) of oily fish per week. Children during growth, seniors, physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, as well as patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease also have an increased need.

Additional information

The dietary supplement contains omega-3ᵀᴳ, or omega-3 acids in the form of trójglyceridesów. Scientific studies suggest that this form of fatty acidsós up to 2 times better absorbed than the estersós present in many dietary supplements on the market. This means that you are assured of their effectiveness and of supplying yourself with valuable omega acids.

Fatty acids omega-3 are derived from wild anchovy oil. It is a rich source of healthy fats that are essential for the health of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as the proper function of vision, joints muscles.

Scientific research suggests that wild anchovies are a good source of healthy fats.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The formula contains a total of 750 mg of EPA+DHA acidsós, which is three times higher than the recommended minimum of 250 mg for the Polish population. Omega-3 TG Premium has studies indicating that its TOTOX is 9, which is a very good result.

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acidsóis recommended for anyone who does not eat 1–2 portions (approximately 300 g) of oily fish per week. Children during growth, seniors, physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, as well as patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease also have an increased need.

Expert opinion

The dietary supplement contains omega-3ᵀᴳ, or omega-3 acids in the form of trójglyceridesów. Scientific studies suggest that this form of fatty acidsós up to 2 times better absorbed than the estersós present in many dietary supplements on the market. This means that you are assured of their effectiveness and of supplying yourself with valuable omega acids.

Fatty acids omega-3 are derived from wild anchovy oil. It is a rich source of healthy fats that are essential for the health of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as the proper function of vision, joints muscles.

Scientific research suggests that wild anchovies are a good source of healthy fats.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The formula contains a total of 750 mg of EPA+DHA acidsós, which is three times higher than the recommended minimum of 250 mg for the Polish population. Omega-3 TG Premium has studies indicating that its TOTOX is 9, which is a very good result.

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acidsóis recommended for anyone who does not eat 1–2 portions (approximately 300 g) of oily fish per week. Children during growth, seniors, physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, as well as patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease also have an increased need.

Natu.Care Omega-3

Natu.Care Omega-3
4.6
  • Omega-3 content: 550 mg (220 mg DHA + 330 mg acid EPA)
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement contains high-quality fatty acids omega-3 from anchovy oil. It is a naturally rich source of healthy fats that are essential for cardiovascular, immune and nervous system health, as well as proper function of eyesight, joints muscles.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The dietary supplement contains 550 mg EPA+DHA per daily serving. This is more than double the official recommendations for the Polish population, whichóre suggesting an intake of at least 250 mg per day.

Supplementation of EPA+DHA is a good way to support healthy sleep.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acidsós is advisable if you do not consume 1–2 portions (approx. 300 g) of oily fish per week. There is also an increased need for physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, seniors, children during growth spurts and patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease.

Pros and cons

The dietary supplement contains high-quality fatty acids omega-3 from anchovy oil. It is a naturally rich source of healthy fats that are essential for cardiovascular, immune and nervous system health, as well as proper function of eyesight, joints muscles.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The dietary supplement contains 550 mg EPA+DHA per daily serving. This is more than double the official recommendations for the Polish population, whichóre suggesting an intake of at least 250 mg per day.

Supplementation of EPA+DHA is a good way to support healthy sleep.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acidsós is advisable if you do not consume 1–2 portions (approx. 300 g) of oily fish per week. There is also an increased need for physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, seniors, children during growth spurts and patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease.

Additional information

The dietary supplement contains high-quality fatty acids omega-3 from anchovy oil. It is a naturally rich source of healthy fats that are essential for cardiovascular, immune and nervous system health, as well as proper function of eyesight, joints muscles.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The dietary supplement contains 550 mg EPA+DHA per daily serving. This is more than double the official recommendations for the Polish population, whichóre suggesting an intake of at least 250 mg per day.

Supplementation of EPA+DHA is a good way to support healthy sleep.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acidsós is advisable if you do not consume 1–2 portions (approx. 300 g) of oily fish per week. There is also an increased need for physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, seniors, children during growth spurts and patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease.

Expert opinion

The dietary supplement contains high-quality fatty acids omega-3 from anchovy oil. It is a naturally rich source of healthy fats that are essential for cardiovascular, immune and nervous system health, as well as proper function of eyesight, joints muscles.

Scientific research also suggests that an adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acidsós protects against and supports the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, omega-3s influence the hydration and appearance of the skinóry and support healthy sleep.

.

The dietary supplement contains 550 mg EPA+DHA per daily serving. This is more than double the official recommendations for the Polish population, whichóre suggesting an intake of at least 250 mg per day.

Supplementation of EPA+DHA is a good way to support healthy sleep.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acidsós is advisable if you do not consume 1–2 portions (approx. 300 g) of oily fish per week. There is also an increased need for physically active people, vegans and vegetarians, seniors, children during growth spurts and patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment and prevention of heart disease.

Simple composition

Pharmovit Omega 3 Max

Pharmovit Omega 3 Max
4.9
  • Content omega-3 acids550 mg (220 mg DHA + 330 mg EPA)
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Apart from DHA and EPA, you will find absolutely nothing here. It is therefore a great supplement for people who want to supplement their omega acids and do not need any additional active ingredients.

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

The sourceóof the omega-3 fatty acids in the preparation is fish oil.

.
Pros and cons

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Apart from DHA and EPA, you will find absolutely nothing here. It is therefore a great supplement for people who want to supplement their omega acids and do not need any additional active ingredients.

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

The sourceóof the omega-3 fatty acids in the preparation is fish oil.

.
Additional information

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Apart from DHA and EPA, you will find absolutely nothing here. It is therefore a great supplement for people who want to supplement their omega acids and do not need any additional active ingredients.

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

The sourceóof the omega-3 fatty acids in the preparation is fish oil.

.
User review

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Apart from DHA and EPA, you will find absolutely nothing here. It is therefore a great supplement for people who want to supplement their omega acids and do not need any additional active ingredients.

A simple dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

The sourceóof the omega-3 fatty acids in the preparation is fish oil.

.

Restores balance

Sundose° Daily Balance°

Sundose° Daily Balance°
4.5
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Stress, exhaustion and tension? Daily Balance° restores calmóness and mental clarity even in the face of the greatest challenges. It is a formula that draws on the synergistic effects of ashwagandha and magnesium, further enhanced with a complex of B vitamins, for reduced feelings of fatigue and tiredness.

The omega-3 fatty acids in the Daily Balance° formula are derived from high-quality fish oil. The healthy fats contribute to the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, skinóry condition and support mental health.

Pros and cons

Stress, exhaustion and tension? Daily Balance° restores calmóness and mental clarity even in the face of the greatest challenges. It is a formula that draws on the synergistic effects of ashwagandha and magnesium, further enhanced with a complex of B vitamins, for reduced feelings of fatigue and tiredness.

The omega-3 fatty acids in the Daily Balance° formula are derived from high-quality fish oil. The healthy fats contribute to the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, skinóry condition and support mental health.

Additional information

Stress, exhaustion and tension? Daily Balance° restores calmóness and mental clarity even in the face of the greatest challenges. It is a formula that draws on the synergistic effects of ashwagandha and magnesium, further enhanced with a complex of B vitamins, for reduced feelings of fatigue and tiredness.

The omega-3 fatty acids in the Daily Balance° formula are derived from high-quality fish oil. The healthy fats contribute to the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, skinóry condition and support mental health.

User review

Stress, exhaustion and tension? Daily Balance° restores calmóness and mental clarity even in the face of the greatest challenges. It is a formula that draws on the synergistic effects of ashwagandha and magnesium, further enhanced with a complex of B vitamins, for reduced feelings of fatigue and tiredness.

The omega-3 fatty acids in the Daily Balance° formula are derived from high-quality fish oil. The healthy fats contribute to the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, skinóry condition and support mental health.

Vegan

Dr. Jacob's DHA + EPA

Dr. Jacob's DHA + EPA
4.1
  • Omega-3 content: 250 mg (83 mg EPA + 167 mg DHA)
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1–2 capsules
  • Sufficient for: 30 or 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement contains oil from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp. Algae are a healthy, plant-based alternative as a source of health-important fatty acids. 

DHA acid contributes to the maintenance of normal móbrain function and normal vision, and the combination of EPA + DHA supports heart health (with a daily intake of 250 mg DHA). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support immunity, mood and the condition and appearance of the skinóskin.

DHA supplementation is especially important when consuming little fish, so those on a plant-based diet should ensure supplementation as they are at risk of an omega-3 deficiency.

Pros and cons

The dietary supplement contains oil from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp. Algae are a healthy, plant-based alternative as a source of health-important fatty acids. 

DHA acid contributes to the maintenance of normal móbrain function and normal vision, and the combination of EPA + DHA supports heart health (with a daily intake of 250 mg DHA). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support immunity, mood and the condition and appearance of the skinóskin.

DHA supplementation is especially important when consuming little fish, so those on a plant-based diet should ensure supplementation as they are at risk of an omega-3 deficiency.

Additional information

The dietary supplement contains oil from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp. Algae are a healthy, plant-based alternative as a source of health-important fatty acids. 

DHA acid contributes to the maintenance of normal móbrain function and normal vision, and the combination of EPA + DHA supports heart health (with a daily intake of 250 mg DHA). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support immunity, mood and the condition and appearance of the skinóskin.

DHA supplementation is especially important when consuming little fish, so those on a plant-based diet should ensure supplementation as they are at risk of an omega-3 deficiency.

User review

The dietary supplement contains oil from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp. Algae are a healthy, plant-based alternative as a source of health-important fatty acids. 

DHA acid contributes to the maintenance of normal móbrain function and normal vision, and the combination of EPA + DHA supports heart health (with a daily intake of 250 mg DHA). In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support immunity, mood and the condition and appearance of the skinóskin.

DHA supplementation is especially important when consuming little fish, so those on a plant-based diet should ensure supplementation as they are at risk of an omega-3 deficiency.

Efficient

ALLNUTRITION Omega 3 Strong

ALLNUTRITION Omega 3 Strong
4.7
  • Content omega-3 acids550 mg (DHA 220 mg + EPA 330 mg)
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin E
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 90 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A dietary supplement with a solid portion of DHA and EPA – valuable for health and well-being omega-3 acidsós. Indicated especially for people on a plant-based diet, physically active people and seniors.

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The sourceóof omega-3 acids in this preparation is fish oil.

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Pros and cons

A dietary supplement with a solid portion of DHA and EPA – valuable for health and well-being omega-3 acidsós. Indicated especially for people on a plant-based diet, physically active people and seniors.

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The sourceóof omega-3 acids in this preparation is fish oil.

.
Additional information

A dietary supplement with a solid portion of DHA and EPA – valuable for health and well-being omega-3 acidsós. Indicated especially for people on a plant-based diet, physically active people and seniors.

.

The sourceóof omega-3 acids in this preparation is fish oil.

.
User review

A dietary supplement with a solid portion of DHA and EPA – valuable for health and well-being omega-3 acidsós. Indicated especially for people on a plant-based diet, physically active people and seniors.

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The sourceóof omega-3 acids in this preparation is fish oil.

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Pure composition

Aura Herbals Omega-3 370 DHA / 700 EPA

Aura Herbals Omega-3 370 DHA / 700 EPA
4.9
  • Omega-3 content: 370 mg DHA and 700 mg EPA
  • .
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: liquid
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  • Dose: 5 or 10 ml
  • Sufficient for: 20 or 40 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Supplement in liquid form, rich in fatty acids from Atlantic mackerel, anchovies and Atlantic sardines. It is a rich source of omega-3 acids. The combination of DHA and EPA improves the functioning of your brain, heart, eyesight, supports the nervous system, influences the appearance of your skin and has a positive impact on your mental health.

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Pros and cons

Supplement in liquid form, rich in fatty acids from Atlantic mackerel, anchovies and Atlantic sardines. It is a rich source of omega-3 acids. The combination of DHA and EPA improves the functioning of your brain, heart, eyesight, supports the nervous system, influences the appearance of your skin and has a positive impact on your mental health.

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Additional information

Supplement in liquid form, rich in fatty acids from Atlantic mackerel, anchovies and Atlantic sardines. It is a rich source of omega-3 acids. The combination of DHA and EPA improves the functioning of your brain, heart, eyesight, supports the nervous system, influences the appearance of your skin and has a positive impact on your mental health.

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User review

Supplement in liquid form, rich in fatty acids from Atlantic mackerel, anchovies and Atlantic sardines. It is a rich source of omega-3 acids. The combination of DHA and EPA improves the functioning of your brain, heart, eyesight, supports the nervous system, influences the appearance of your skin and has a positive impact on your mental health.

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Good for heart health

Dr. Jacob's DHA-EPA + Vitamin E

Dr. Jacob's DHA-EPA + Vitamin E
4.1
  • Content omega-3 acids255 mg (170 mg DHA + 85 mg EPA)
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin E
  • Form: liquid
  • .
  • Dose: 5 ml
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 50 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

DHA-EPA + Vitamin E is a vegan dietary supplement rich in omega-3 DHA and EPA acids from algae and vitamin E. The product supports the proper functioning of the brain, eyesight and heart, providing the necessary ingredientsóin an easily digestible form. 

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The product additionally provides extra virgin olive oil and bioactive vitamin E, which has an antioxidant effect.

Pros and cons

DHA-EPA + Vitamin E is a vegan dietary supplement rich in omega-3 DHA and EPA acids from algae and vitamin E. The product supports the proper functioning of the brain, eyesight and heart, providing the necessary ingredientsóin an easily digestible form. 

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The product additionally provides extra virgin olive oil and bioactive vitamin E, which has an antioxidant effect.

Additional information

DHA-EPA + Vitamin E is a vegan dietary supplement rich in omega-3 DHA and EPA acids from algae and vitamin E. The product supports the proper functioning of the brain, eyesight and heart, providing the necessary ingredientsóin an easily digestible form. 

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The product additionally provides extra virgin olive oil and bioactive vitamin E, which has an antioxidant effect.

User review

DHA-EPA + Vitamin E is a vegan dietary supplement rich in omega-3 DHA and EPA acids from algae and vitamin E. The product supports the proper functioning of the brain, eyesight and heart, providing the necessary ingredientsóin an easily digestible form. 

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The product additionally provides extra virgin olive oil and bioactive vitamin E, which has an antioxidant effect.

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DHA + EPA for children

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The best DHA+EPA acids for children are Aura Herbals Omega 300 mg + Vitamin D3 800 IU. This is a high-quality dietary supplement with a child-appropriate daily dose of omega-3 fatty acids (180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA) and vitamin D3. The twist-off capsules are easy to administer and the product lasts for up to 60 days.

Omega + Vitamin D3 800 IU for children

Omega + Vitamin D3 800 IU for children
4.9
  • Content of omega-3 fatty acids: 300 mg (180 mg EPA + 120 mg DHA)
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  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin D3
  • Form: twist-off capsules
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  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
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  • Sufficient for: 60 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Omega-3 acids for children with added vitamin D3 in good doses. The formula fills the daily requirement of EPA and DHA and vitamin D for children aged 2–18 years. 

The Ministry of Health recommends supplementation with vitamin D3. In turn, omega-3 fatty acids are also crucial for the youngest.

The dietary supplement from Aura Herbals supports mós brain function, proper vision and immune system function.

The omega-3 fatty acids are derived from fish oil sourced from anchovies.

Pros and cons

Omega-3 acids for children with added vitamin D3 in good doses. The formula fills the daily requirement of EPA and DHA and vitamin D for children aged 2–18 years. 

The Ministry of Health recommends supplementation with vitamin D3. In turn, omega-3 fatty acids are also crucial for the youngest.

The dietary supplement from Aura Herbals supports mós brain function, proper vision and immune system function.

The omega-3 fatty acids are derived from fish oil sourced from anchovies.

Additional information

Omega-3 acids for children with added vitamin D3 in good doses. The formula fills the daily requirement of EPA and DHA and vitamin D for children aged 2–18 years. 

The Ministry of Health recommends supplementation with vitamin D3. In turn, omega-3 fatty acids are also crucial for the youngest.

The dietary supplement from Aura Herbals supports mós brain function, proper vision and immune system function.

The omega-3 fatty acids are derived from fish oil sourced from anchovies.

User review

Omega-3 acids for children with added vitamin D3 in good doses. The formula fills the daily requirement of EPA and DHA and vitamin D for children aged 2–18 years. 

The Ministry of Health recommends supplementation with vitamin D3. In turn, omega-3 fatty acids are also crucial for the youngest.

The dietary supplement from Aura Herbals supports mós brain function, proper vision and immune system function.

The omega-3 fatty acids are derived from fish oil sourced from anchovies.

Easy to administer

Primabiotic Omega + Vitamin D3 Kids - twist off capsules

Primabiotic Omega + Vitamin D3 Kids - twist off capsules
5.0
  • Omega-3 content: DHA 120 mg, EPA 180 mg
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  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin D3 from lanolin
  • Form: twist off capsules
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  • Packaging: 60 capsules
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  • Dose: 1 capsule per day
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  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A dietary supplement with omega-3 acids from anchovies and vitamin D3 designed for children. The easy-to-open twist-off capsule makes it easy to administer the contents to your child. Simple composition, without unnecessary additives for the baby.

Pros and cons

A dietary supplement with omega-3 acids from anchovies and vitamin D3 designed for children. The easy-to-open twist-off capsule makes it easy to administer the contents to your child. Simple composition, without unnecessary additives for the baby.

Additional information

A dietary supplement with omega-3 acids from anchovies and vitamin D3 designed for children. The easy-to-open twist-off capsule makes it easy to administer the contents to your child. Simple composition, without unnecessary additives for the baby.

Expert opinion

A dietary supplement with omega-3 acids from anchovies and vitamin D3 designed for children. The easy-to-open twist-off capsule makes it easy to administer the contents to your child. Simple composition, without unnecessary additives for the baby.

EPA + DHA daily requirement

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Nutrition standards for the Polish population suggest a minimum amount of unsaturated fats in the diet to enjoy good health. Do you know how much EPA and DHA per day you need to consume?"

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Daily omega-3 fatty acid and fat requirements for infants, children and adolescents

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Ingredient

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Recommended intake

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Eicosapentaenoic acid +

Docosahexaenoic acid (EHA + DHA)

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7-24 months: DHA 100 mg/day only;

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2-18 years: EPA+DHA 250 mg/day

Daily omega-3 fatty acid and fat requirements for adults

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Ingredient

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Recommended intake

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Eicosapentaenoic acid +

Docosahexaenoic acid (EHA + DHA)

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250 mg

Each country, each... different recommendations?

Every country, each... different recommendations?

According to the Polish Institute of Food and Nutrition, you should consume a minimum of 250 mg of EPA and DHAand. I've looked at data for other countries and the recommendations there - the spread is incredible. Up to 1,000 mg EPA+DHA per day is recommended for healthy adults in Brazil, Israel or the USand.

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Symptoms of EPA and DHA deficiency

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Unfortunately  symptoms of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency are not characteristic and may be indicative of other deficits or disease. However, if you experience the following symptoms, see your doctor to determine the cause.

A deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids can manifest itselfand:

  • dryness and irritation of the skin,
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  • keratosis of the epidermis,
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  • dryness of the eyes,
  • dryness of the eyes.
  • pain and stiffness of joints,
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  • hair loss,
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  • lower mood,
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  • fatigue,
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  • lowering of immunity,
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There is a greater chance that you are deficient in EPA and DHA if you are on a plant-based diet. Although many plants contain a high content of omega-3 fatty acids, they are not as well absorbed as those from animal sources.
Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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Sources of EPA and DHA in the diet

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The omega-3 fatty acids are produced by microalgae. When eaten, fish accumulate omega-3s - so fish meat is the best source of these acidsand. Make sure you have these fish on your menu at least once a week.

Animal sources of EPA and DHA

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Product

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EPA and DHA content per 100 g*

Macre

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3000-4000 mg

Sardines

2200-2500 mg

Tran (cod liver oil)

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2400 mg

Salmon

2100 mg

Herring

2000-3000 mg

Salmon trout

1200-1400 mg

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Tuna

1000-1500 mg

Shrimp

300-500 mg

*The content of omega-3 fatty acids in foods may vary depending on a number of factors, e.g. how they are grown or heat treated.

See also: Best sources of omega-3s in the diet

Vegetable sources of EPA and DHA

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Unfortunately, while plants are rich in omega-3 acids in general, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) dominates. Oils (e.g. flaxseed), nuts, seeds or legumes often appear on the menu of vegans, but these will not provide adequate amounts of EPA and DHA and will not be as well absorbed by the body.

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Vegans and vegetarians who do not supplement EPA and DHA because they assume that plant sources alone will suffice, suffer severe deficiencies, concentration problems, heart problems and chronic inflammation after many years of such a diet. We cannot put an equal sign between plant and marine sources of omega-3.
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Julia Skrajda.

Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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People on a plant-based diet who want to take care of EPA and DHA can benefit from dietary supplements containing oil from marine algae, most commonly the Schizochytrium species.

The only good sources of EPA and DHA for vegans are marine algae, but the ratio is in favour of DHA. Therefore, it is important to watch for EPA deficiencies. It is worth doing regular blood tests, mainly regarding the risk of cardiovascular disease, and observing. Everyone's needs are different and we absorb and tolerate particular substances differently," explains the nutritionist.

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The level and need for EPA is variable and dynamic, so it may turn out that for one person on a plant-based diet, seaweed supplements will be ok. However, for another person on such a diet, seaweed may not be enough, because, for example, he or she leads a more stressful lifestyle and has a genetically increased risk of cardiovascular disease, adds Julia Skrajda.

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Dietitian advice

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When choosing an omega-3 supplement, pay attention to a slightly higher supply of EPA than DHA, because these also compete with each other. EPA is necessary throughout life, DHA mainly in infancy, childhood and senior years. DHA levels in the body stabilise around the age of 5, and the need for EPA is quite dynamic and variable. The ratio of EPA to DHA supply should be 2:1.

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Summary

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  • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are fats of the omega-3 family of acids.
  • Acting in synergy, EPA and DHA support the function of the organ of vision and the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, affect mental health, inflammation control and skin condition.
  • An adult should consume a minimum of 250 mg EPA+DHA daily.
  • .
  • The best sources of EPA and DHA are fatty marine fish, e.g. mackerel, salmon, sardines.
  • .
  • Vegans can supplement EPA and DHA from preparations containing omega-3 fatty acids from marine algae.
  • .

FAQ

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. What EPA+DHA do you recommend?.

Recommended  omega-3 acids DHA+EPA with good composition are Natu.Care Omega-3 ᵀᴳ Premium  with a serving of 500 mg EPA acid and 250 mg DHA acid. Taking 1 capsule a day supplements the diet with valuable fats and lasts for 60 days of supplementation. And the supplement has laboratory tests for E. Coli.

. What are the best EPA+DHA acids?.

The best EPA+DHA acids can be found in dietary supplements with omega-3 acids in the triglyceride form. This form is assimilated up to 2 times better than the popular esters on the supplement market. A recommended preparation with triglycerides is Natu.Care Omega-3 TG with 750 mg EPA+DHA in 1 daily serving.

. Can you overdose on DHA/EPA?.

Yes, it is possible to overdose on the fatty acids DHA and EPA, but this is a very rare occurrence that most often happens through over-supplementation. The body naturally gets rid of excess omega acids. Furthermore, it is impossible to overdose on DHA from food. Special care should be taken when taking tran, which contains a lot vitamin A.

. Do you get fat after DHA?.

The acid DHA is contained in the group of omega-3 acids. It belongs to the fats that have 9 kcal/1 g. If you consume a lot of fats from foods and exceed your daily kilocalorie requirement, you may gain weight. DHA supplementation is not calorific - one capsule has about 10 kcal.

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. What is more important EPA or DHA?.

Both DHA and EPA are important for the proper functioning of the body. Each has its own functions in maintaining good health and well-being, e.g. DHA is particularly important for brain and eye development in infants and children, and EPA is associated with reducing inflammation in the body. Both should be provided with food or dietary supplements.

. Who should supplement EPA+DHA?.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) is recommended:

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  • vegans and vegetarians,
  • .
  • persons who consume little fish,
  • .
  • children during periods of intensive growth,
  • .
  • seniors,
  • .
  • patients undergoing cardiac treatment and prevention of heart disease,
  • patients undergoing cardiac treatment and prevention of heart disease.
  • people with autoimmune diseases, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Hashimoto's disease, psoriasis.
  • .
  • allergic people,
  • .
  • people who are physically active,
  • .
. Is EPA acid harmful?.

No, EPA acid is not harmful and is considered safe to consume if you follow the recommended daily portions. However, people with haemorrhagic diathesis or seafood allergies should consult a specialist before starting EPA acid supplementation. Potential interactions with medications should be discussed with your doctor.

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Resources

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. See all.

A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! - A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system-PMC. (n.d.). Retrieved October 3, 2023, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712371/

Calder, P. C. (2010). Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes. Nutrients2(3), 355-374. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2030355

Dyall, S. C. (2015). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: A review of the independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience7, 52. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00052

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). (2012). Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). EFSA Journal10(7), 2815. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2815

Elbahnasawy, A. S., Valeeva, E. R., El-Sayed, E. M., & Stepanova, N. V. (2019). Protective effect of dietary oils containing omega-3 fatty acids against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Journal of Nutrition and Health52(4), 323-331. https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2019.52.4.323

Guesnet, P., & Alessandri, J.-M. (2011). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the developing central nervous system (CNS)-Implications for dietary recommendations. Biochimie93(1), 7-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2010.05.005

Guo, Y., Ma, B., Li, X., Hui, H., Zhou, Y., Li, N., & Xie, X. (2022). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Can Reduce IL-6 and TNF Levels in Patients with Cancer. The British Journal of Nutrition, 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114522000575

Kavyani, Z., Musazadeh, V., Fathi, S., Hossein Faghfouri, A., Dehghan, P., & Sarmadi, B. (2022). Efficacy of the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers: An umbrella meta-analysis. International Immunopharmacology111, 109104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2022.109104

Khalili, L., Valdes-Ramos, R., & Harbige, L. S. (2021). Effect of n-3 (Omega-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Body Weight in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of RCTs. Metabolites11(11), 742. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11110742

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Belury, M. A., Andridge, R., Malarkey, W. B., & Glaser, R. (2011). Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: A randomized controlled trial. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity25(8), 1725-1734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2011.07.229

Kruger, M. C., Coetzer, H., de Winter, R., Gericke, G., & van Papendorp, D. H. (1998). Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis. Aging (Milan, Italy)10(5), 385-394. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03339885

Leaf, A. (2008). Historical overview of n-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition87(6), 1978S-80S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.6.1978S

Li, J., Xun, P., Zamora, D., Sood, A., Liu, K., Daviglus, M., Iribarren, C., Jacobs, D., Shikany, J. M., & He, K. (2013). Intakes of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs and fish in relation to incidence of asthma among American young adults: The CARDIA study123. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition97(1), 181-186. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.041145

Liao, Y., Xie, B., Zhang, H., He, Q., Guo, L., Subramanieapillai, M., Fan, B., Lu, C., & McIntyre, R. S. (2019). Efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in depression: A meta-analysis. Translational Psychiatry9, 190. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0515-5

Liu, G., Liu, J., Pian, L., Gui, S., & Lu, B. (2019). α-lipoic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis through the suppression of the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway and autophagy. Molecular Medicine Reports19(2), 841-850. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.9719

Mano, Y., Kato, A., Fukuda, N., Yamada, K., & Yanagimoto, K. (2022). Influence of Ingestion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil on Oxidative Stress at the Menstrual Phase: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Trial. Women's Health Reports3(1), 643-651. https://doi.org/10.1089/whr.2022.0003

Marine Oils. (2006). In Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®). National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK501898/

Martins, J. G. (2009). EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: Evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American College of Nutrition28(5), 525-542. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2009.10719785

Merle, B. M. J., Benlian, P., Puche, N., Bassols, A., Delcourt, C., Souied, E. H., & Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 Study Group. (2014). Circulating omega-3 Fatty acids and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science55(3), 2010-2019. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-13916

Mohajeri, M. H., Troesch, B., & Weber, P. (2015). Inadequate supply of vitamins and DHA in the elderly: Implications for brain aging and Alzheimer-type dementia. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)31(2), 261-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.016

Montgomery, P., Burton, J. R., Sewell, R. P., Spreckelsen, T. F., & Richardson, A. J. (2014). Fatty acids and sleep in UK children: Subjective and pilot objective sleep results from the DOLAB study--a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Sleep Research23(4), 364-388. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12135

Nelson, J. R., Wani, O., May, H. T., & Budoff, M. (2017). Potential benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid on atherosclerotic plaques. Vascular Pharmacology91, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2017.02.004

Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood96(4), 350-353. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2010.192401

Oelrich, B., Dewell, A., & Gardner, C. D. (2013). Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adults. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD23(4), 350-357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2011.06.003

Office of Dietary Supplements-Omega-3 Fatty Acids. (n.d.). Retrieved October 3, 2023, from https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-Consumer/

Oliveira, J. M., & Rondó, P. H. C. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids and hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy: Systematic review and meta-analysis. HIV Clinical Trials12(5), 268-274. https://doi.org/10.1310/hct1205-268

Omega-3 fatty acids' supplementation in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review-PubMed. (n.d.). Retrieved October 3, 2023, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28466678/

Omega-3-6-9 Fatty Acids: A Complete Overview. (2020, October 5). Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/omega-3-6-9-overview

Pahwa, R., Goyal, A., & Jialal, I. (2022). Chronic Inflammation. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493173/

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Parke, M. A., Perez-Sanchez, A., Zamil, D. H., & Katta, R. (2021). Diet and Skin Barrier: The Role of Dietary Interventions on Skin Barrier Function. Dermatology Practical & Conceptual11(1), e2021132. https://doi.org/10.5826/dpc.1101a132

Perera, H., Jeewandara, K. C., Seneviratne, S., & Guruge, C. (2012). Combined ω3 and ω6 supplementation in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) refractory to methylphenidate treatment: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Child Neurology27(6), 747-753. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073811435243

Peuhkuri, K., Sihvola, N., & Korpela, R. (2012). Dietary factors and fluctuating levels of melatonin. Food & Nutrition Research56, 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.17252. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v56i0.17252

Ramel, A., Martinez, J. A., Kiely, M., Bandarra, N. M., & Thorsdottir, I. (2010). Moderate consumption of fatty fish reduces diastolic blood pressure in overweight and obese European young adults during energy restriction. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)26(2), 168-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.04.002

Ross, B. M. (2007). Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in major depressive disorder is caused by the interaction between diet and a genetically determined abnormality in phospholipid metabolism. Medical Hypotheses68(3), 515-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2006.07.054

Theodoratou, E., McNeill, G., Cetnarskyj, R., Farrington, S. M., Tenesa, A., Barnetson, R., Porteous, M., Dunlop, M., & Campbell, H. (2007). Dietary fatty acids and colorectal cancer: A case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology166(2), 181-195. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm063

Thomsen, B. J., Chow, E. Y., & Sapijaszko, M. J. (2020). The Potential Uses of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Dermatology: A Review. Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery24(5), 481-494. https://doi.org/10.1177/1203475420929925

Wani, A. L., Bhat, S. A., & Ara, A. (2015). Omega-3 fatty acids and the treatment of depression: A review of scientific evidence. Integrative Medicine Research4(3), 132-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2015.07.003

Wawryszuk, N. (2023). Omega acids. Everything you need to know. (B. Turczynski, Ed.; 1st ed.). Natu.Care. https://books.google.com/books?vid=9788396887818

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Wielgosz, Ph.D., R.W., Prof NIZP PZH-PIB, M.Sc. Justyna. (2020, July 27). The importance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during pregnancy and lactation. National Centre for Nutrition Education. https://ncez.pzh.gov.pl/ciaza-i-macierzynstwo/znaczenie-kwasu-dokozaheksaenowego-dha-w-okresie-ciazy-i-laktacji/

Wooten, J. S., Biggerstaff, K. D., & Ben-Ezra, V. (2009). Responses of LDL and HDL particle size and distribution to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and aerobic exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology107(3), 794-800. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.91062.2008

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Editorials

Meet the team
Nina Wawryszuk - Author

Natu.Care Editor

Nina Wawryszuk specialises in sports supplementation, strength training and psychosomatics. On a daily basis, in addition to writing articles for Natu.Care, as a personal trainer she helps athletes improve their performance through training, diet and supplementation.

Julia Skrajda - Reviewed by

Clinical nutritionist

Verified by an expert

A clinical nutritionist, she works in the profession and creates personalised menus and recommendations for disease entities.

Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited by

Editor-in-Chief

Bartłomiej Turczyński is the editor-in-chief of Natu.Care. He is responsible for the quality of the content created on Natu.Care, among others, and ensures that all articles are based on sound scientific research and consulted with industry specialists.

Emilia Moskal - Fact-checking

Natu.Care Editor

Emilia Moskal specialises in medical and psychological texts, including content for medical entities. She is a fan of simple language and reader-friendly communication. At Natu.Care, she writes educational articles.

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