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Proline (l-proline): properties, deficiency, side effects, opinions

Proline is an endogenous protein amino acid that supports collagen production, wound healing and joints.

Ludwig Jelonek - AuthorAuthorLudwig Jelonek
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Ludwik Jelonek is the author of more than 2,500 texts published on leading portals. His content has found its way into services such as Ostrovit and Kobieta Onet. At Natu.Care, Ludwik educates people in the most important area of life - health.

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Ilona Bush - Reviewed byReviewed byIlona Bush
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Ilona Bush - Reviewed by
Reviewed byIlona Bush
Master of Pharmacy

Ilona Krzak obtained her Master of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of Wrocław. She did her internship in a hospital pharmacy and in the pharmaceutical industry. She is currently working in the profession and also runs an educational profile on Instagram: @pani_z_apteki

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Proline (l-proline): properties, deficiency, side effects, opinions
29 April, 2024
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Proline is such a percussionist in the world of amino acids. He's always in the shadow of the rest of the band, but without him all the music falls apart. Similarly, your body would fall apart if it ran out of proline.

That is why, together with a doctor of medicine, a master's degree in pharmacy and a clinical nutritionist I will give you the most important information about it.

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From this article you will learn:

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  • What is proline, L-proline and D-proline.
  • .
  • What properties it has and what it does for you.
  • What it does for you.
  • In which products you will find proline.
  • .
  • What are the symptoms of deficiency and excess of this ingredient.
  • .
  • What are contraindications and side effects with proline supplementation.
  • .

See also:

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What is proline?

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Proline is an endogenous amino acid protein - the body can produce it itself. It is mainly produced from glutamic acid (commonly found in animal organisms). Proline is one of the most important protein amino acidsand.

His unique structure allows the formation of proteins with specific structures - with turns and loops. These unusual structures are essential for the proteins to function properly and stabilise their tertiary structure (i.e. shape).

Proline is involved in processes such as protein synthesis, immune regulation and tissue development. Like lysine, it is also essential for the production of collagen, the richest protein in the human body, highlighting its importance for skin, joint and bone healthand.

What formula does proline have?

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Proline has the formula C5H9NO2. It is characterised by its unique structure and is a key component of collagen. In addition, its specific structure allows it to give unique shapes to protein structures, influencing their stability and function.

Proline is a key component of collagen.

Proline, L-proline and D-proline - what are the differences?

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Amino acids, such as proline, can exist in two spatial forms, super scientifically speaking, they are chiral. In the case of proline, a distinction is made between: L-proline and D-proline.

L-proline

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L-proline is one of the two forms of proline. It is biologically active and occurs naturally in the body. L-proline is a type of proline that is used in the production of proteins, including the key protein for health - collagen.

In short, L-proline is an actively biological variant of proline. It is the one that plays key structural and functional roles in the human body.

D-proline

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D-proline is the second form of proline, less common and biologically less active than L-proline. D-proline occurs naturally in some micro-organisms, such as bacteria, where it is involved in some specific biochemical processes.

In humans, the role of D-proline is significantly limited. Most human enzymes are unable to metabolise it. Nevertheless, human organisms have the ability to convert a certain amount of D-proline to L-proline by means of appropriate enzymes.

Human organisms have the ability to convert a certain amount of D-proline to L-proline by means of appropriate enzymes.

D-proline is not common, nor is it actively used in human metabolism.

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As a rule, it is the amino acids with the 'L' configuration that are present in the body and show biological activity.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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What about hydroxyproline?

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Hydroxyproline is a derivative of the amino acid proline, whose unique properties are due to an additional hydroxyl group.

The most important role of hydroxyproline is its role in collagen, which consists of three polypeptide chains that twist inwards and outwards.

Hydroxyproline helps stabilise this complex structure by forming water bridges, increasing the stability and strength of the entire collagen protein.

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In order to synthesise hydroxyproline, it is necessary vitamin C. Any disruption in obtaining hydroxyproline may result in inhibition of further steps in collagen biosynthesis.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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What properties does proline have?

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Responsible for protein structure

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Proline is an unusual amino acid that plays a special role in protein structure. It is often found where the protein chain makes a turn, forming twists and loops. This property comes from the unique structure of proline and is crucial to the three-dimensional structure of proteins.

Proline also gives proteins rigidity, helping them to hold their shape. Not only does it affect the structure of proteins, but it also plays a vital role in cell signalling - the process by which cells communicate with each other.

Proline is a key contributor to the structure of proteins.

Responsible for collagen production

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Proline is one of the key amino acids in the body's collagen production process. Its key functions include:

  • Peptide chain formation. Proline is essential for the formation of the basic structure of collagen - the triple helix. This amino acid is part of the peptide chain of collagen and influences the stability and structure of this helix.
  • Hydroxylation. In the process of hydroxylation, enzymes modify certain proline molecules, converting them into hydroxyproline. This process is important for the stability of the collagen structure.
  • Collagen resynthesis. Proline is also a key component in collagen resynthesis. Collagen resynthesis is a process that enables the body to repair and regenerate connective tissue.

Influences the wound healing process

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Proline is also involved in the wound healing process. It has several important functions that affect tissue reconstruction and regeneration. The most important of these include:

  • Collagen formation. The wound healing process depends largely on collagen, and proline is one of the main components of this protein. Collagen forms the structure that supports the new tissue during healing.
  • .
  • Regulation of apoptosis; Proline may also play a role in regulating apoptosis (programmed cell death), which is essential for removing damaged cells and replacing them with new ones during the healing process.
  • Angiogenesis and cell migration. The process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing ones is called angiogenesis. Proline can be associated with angiogenesis, which is crucial during the wound healing process. In addition, this amino acid may promote migration - the process by which cells move to where they are most needed, which is key in wound healing.
  • .
  • Fighting inflammation. The inflammatory process is a normal part of wound healing. Yet an excess of it can lead to continued damage. Proline may play a role in modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.
  • .

Helps joints

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Proline may help people with joint pain and reduce the likelihood of joint-related diseases.

  • Builds collagen. Proline is a key component in building collagen protein, which is essential in the formation of connective tissues that are important for joint health. This protects joints from wear and degenerative changes that can lead to ailments such as arthrosisand.
  • Regenerates joint tissues. Proline is essential for regenerative processes, helping to repair damaged joint tissues and produce new, healthy cellsand.
  • .
  • Prevents inflammationand.
  • By supporting the immune system, proline can help reduce chronic inflammation, which is often the cause of joint problemsand..

Promotes heart health

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Proline is crucial for heart health. One of the main areas where it shows its positive effects is in the regulation of blood pressure .

It is essential for the production of collagen in the body, and it affects the elasticity and strength of blood vessel walls. Healthy blood vessels are more resistant to increased blood pressure, which minimises the risk of cardiovascular disease .

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Healthy vascular walls also mean a lower risk of aneurysms.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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What about cholesterol?

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Proline also has a positive effect on cholesterol control. It is a component of lipoproteins - the key molecules that transport fats in the body. When proline levels are normal, the process of transporting lipids (including cholesterol) is more efficient, helping to maintain healthy blood cholesterol levelsand.

Also, proline indirectly reduces oxidative stress by supporting glutathione production. Glutathione is one of the main antioxidants that helps protect the body from free radical damageand.

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What is best for your skin?

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If you don't want to opt for a standard collagen supplement (e.g. because of a vegan diet), you can bet on supplements that will support the production of the protein of youth. The best of these are supplements like proline+lysine+vitamin C. These are some of the most important ingredients for collagen production in the bodyand.

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Proline supplementation reduces degradation of collagen fibers.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Does proline help with depression?

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Some studies suggest links between amino acid metabolism (including proline) and certain psychiatric disorders, but these links are not yet fully understood and require further research.

Proline - uses

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  • Dietary supplements. Proline is often added to dietary supplements as an essential amino acid for optimal body developmentand.
  • .
  • CosmeticsProline is used in cosmetology and skin care products. It is used in masks, face creams, lotions, etc.and.
  • .
  • Agriculture. Proline is used in agriculture, particularly to make plants more resistant to external factors such as droughtand.
  • .

Where proline occurs - sources in food

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Proline in food can allow you to maintain adequate concentrations of this amino acid. A healthy diet is essential for the body's health. Where can you find proline in food?

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Type

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Productsand

Meat and poultry

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Beef, lamb, chicken

meat and poultry

meat.

Fish

Tuna, salmon, cod

Tuna.

Milk and milk products

Milk, cheeses, yoghurts

Nuts and seeds

Nuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame

Nuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame

Vegetables and fruit

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broccoli, asparagus, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, bananas

It is worth remembering that a balanced diet usually provides sufficient proline and supplementation is unnecessary. The exception to this is other recommendations from a doctor or dietician.

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Proline supplied by the diet protects the retina from degeneration caused by oxidative damage in the pigment epithelium.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Proline deficiency

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Proline deficiency is not a very common phenomenon, so there is a lack of research on the subject. Nevertheless, there are some situations in which it can occur.

Proline deficiency is a common occurrence.

Cause of proline deficiencyand:

  • Hereditary disorders of proline metabolism. These are rare genetic cases that render the body unable to metabolise proline properly. In extreme cases, this can lead to neurological problems, including developmental delays.
  • .
  • Nutrition. People who do not get enough protein in their diet can suffer from proline deficiency.
  • Absorption-limiting diseases. Gastrointestinal diseases or problems with the liver can interfere with the body's ability to absorb proline from food.
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About 60% of the proline provided by the diet reaches the plasma - half of this is taken up by the liver and the rest goes to the other organs.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Symptoms of proline deficiency

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Symptoms of proline deficiency are difficult to identify, as they are often combined with general protein deficiency or malabsorption associated with other health conditions.

Because proline is responsible for collagen production, a deficiency of this amino acid could theoretically affect skin, hair or joint health. But this is only a theory, as the specific symptoms of proline deficiency are not precisely identified.

Perhaps in the case of a hereditary disorder, proline deficiency could have an impact on collagen production.

In cases of inherited disorders of proline metabolism, the following symptoms may occurand:

  • developmental delays,
  • .
  • neurological disorders,
  • .
  • convulsions,
  • .

Note, most often these symptoms are rare and usually associated with serious metabolic disorders. Any deficiency, including proline, should not be diagnosed by yourself. If you are concerned about nutritional deficiencies, the best course of action is to contact your doctor or a nutritionist.

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In the case of a proline deficiency, the body begins to break down collagen to obtain it from this protein.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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See also:

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Proline excess - symptoms and effects

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Under normal conditions, proline is converted in an appropriate manner so that it does not accumulate in excess. However, abnormalities in its metabolism can lead to too much of this amino acid in the body, resulting in a rare genetic condition known as hyperprolinaemiaand.

Hyperprolinaemia is a metabolic disorder. There are two types of it: hyperprolinaemia type I and type II.

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  • Hyperprolinaemia type I - is usually asymptomatic, although some individuals may experience mild neurological problems. People with this condition have approx. 3-10 times more proline in the body than healthyand.
  • Hyperprolinaemia type II - is more severe than type I and can lead to mental development problems, seizures, uncontrolled movements (hyperkinesis) and behavioural problems. In this case, proline concentrations can be up to 10-15 times higher than standardand.

Each form of hyperprolinaemia results from a mutation in a specific gene pair. Both forms are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that both copies of the gene must have mutations for the disease to develop.

What is the treatment for proline hyperplasia?

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The treatment of hyperprolinaemia, like other amino acid metabolic disorders, usually consists of a specialised diet and symptomatic treatment. It should be tailored individually to the patient's situation. If the excess proline is caused by a specific disease or condition, the most important goal is to treat this underlying problem.

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Important

Hyperprolinaemia can also occur in other conditions, such as malnutrition or liver disease. In particular, people struggling with elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis) may have hyperprolinaemia because lactic acid stops (inhibits) the breakdown of proline.

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Increased plasma proline levels are seen in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity or insulin resistance.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Proline supplements in tablets and capsules

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Most often, proline supplementation is unnecessary - the amino acid is naturally produced by the body. However, if your specialist has recommended that you take proline supplements, check the following products.

Solgar Hair Skin Nails

Solgar Hair Skin Nails
4.8
  • Active Ingredients: MSM (organic sulphur), vitamin C, zinc, copper, L-proline, L-lysine, silicon, red algae powder
  • .
  • Daily serving: 2 tablets
  • .
  • Packaging: 60 or 120 tablets
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 1 or 2 months
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A dietary supplement with a complex of active ingredients affecting the appearance and condition of hairóhair, skinóskin and nailsand. A simple and effective formulation with no unnecessary additivesós. Recommended for hair loss and poor hairócondition, brittle nails and skinócondition without shine and with imperfections.

Pros and cons

A dietary supplement with a complex of active ingredients affecting the appearance and condition of hairóhair, skinóskin and nailsand. A simple and effective formulation with no unnecessary additivesós. Recommended for hair loss and poor hairócondition, brittle nails and skinócondition without shine and with imperfections.

Additional information

A dietary supplement with a complex of active ingredients affecting the appearance and condition of hairóhair, skinóskin and nailsand. A simple and effective formulation with no unnecessary additivesós. Recommended for hair loss and poor hairócondition, brittle nails and skinócondition without shine and with imperfections.

Expert opinion

A dietary supplement with a complex of active ingredients affecting the appearance and condition of hairóhair, skinóskin and nailsand. A simple and effective formulation with no unnecessary additivesós. Recommended for hair loss and poor hairócondition, brittle nails and skinócondition without shine and with imperfections.

Vegan capsules

L-proline Now Foods 500 mg

L-proline Now Foods 500 mg
4.8
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1–2 capsules daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30–60 days
  • .
See price
at Empik.com
Product description

L-proline Now Foods 500 mg is a dietary supplement providing valuable amino acids s. In addition to proline the formula also contains L-glutamine, L-histidine and L-methionine, which are essential for the proper functioning of the body.

The formula supports the production of collagen, the reconstruction of proteins, as well as supporting the condition of hair skin and nails.

Pros and cons

L-proline Now Foods 500 mg is a dietary supplement providing valuable amino acids s. In addition to proline the formula also contains L-glutamine, L-histidine and L-methionine, which are essential for the proper functioning of the body.

The formula supports the production of collagen, the reconstruction of proteins, as well as supporting the condition of hair skin and nails.

Additional information

L-proline Now Foods 500 mg is a dietary supplement providing valuable amino acids s. In addition to proline the formula also contains L-glutamine, L-histidine and L-methionine, which are essential for the proper functioning of the body.

The formula supports the production of collagen, the reconstruction of proteins, as well as supporting the condition of hair skin and nails.

.

Vegan capsules

Aliness L-Proline 500 mg

Aliness L-Proline 500 mg
4.8
  • Form: capsules
  • .
  • Dose: 1–2 capsules daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30–60 days
  • .
Product description

Aliness L-Proline 500 mg is a pure preparation containing only one active ingredient. This makes the supplement both effective and safe. The vegetarian capsules make Aliness L-Proline 500 mg friendly for peopleówho donót eat meat.

Pros and cons

Aliness L-Proline 500 mg is a pure preparation containing only one active ingredient. This makes the supplement both effective and safe. The vegetarian capsules make Aliness L-Proline 500 mg friendly for peopleówho donót eat meat.

Additional information

Aliness L-Proline 500 mg is a pure preparation containing only one active ingredient. This makes the supplement both effective and safe. The vegetarian capsules make Aliness L-Proline 500 mg friendly for peopleówho donót eat meat.

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Proline supplementation may be important during the reproductive period to improve fertility.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Is there proline in the form of a medicine?

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No, there is no proline in drug form. All the preparations you can buy, even at a pharmacy, are dietary supplements. The price of these products is usually a few tens of zlotys.

The price of these products is usually a few tens of zlotys.

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Collagen preparations you can choose

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The main function of proline is to support the production of collagen. Presumably that's what you want - collagen support for skin, hair, nails and joints. So maybe it would be simpler to take just collagen? Here's a list of the 10 best collagen supplements on the market.

Best overall

Natu.Care Collagen Premium 5000 mg, mango-maracuja

Natu.Care Collagen Premium 5000 mg, mango-maracuja
5.0
  • Collagen content: 5000 mg marine collagen hydrolysate
  • .
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin C, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (and L-theanine and coenzyme Q10 in cocoa flavoured collagen or vitamin A and vitamin E in mango–passion fruit flavoured collagen)
  • .
  • Form: powder sachets
  • .
  • Dose: 1 sachet per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Fish collagen from the Natu.Care brand in a dose of 5000 mg, based on certified ingredients of the best quality. Regular supplementation will positively influence the appearance of the skinóry, hairów and nails – they will be rebuilt and strengthened from the inside.

In addition to collagen, which is valuable for health and beauty, it also offers other active ingredients that help to maintain a youthful complexion, shiny hair and strong nails.

The formula contains a sufficient portion of the active ingredient to positively affect joints, the musculoskeletal system and immunity.

Natu.Care Premium Collagen is available in two flavours – Cacao Bloom and Rise&Shine. Both formulas are based on the following active ingredients: marine collagen hydrolysate, wild roseóbud extract and hyaluronic acid.

Additionally, Cacao Bloom contains natural L-theanine, coenzyme Q10 and defatted Dutch cacao. Rise&Shine instead contains vitamin E and vitamin A.

These are the best collagens in the world.

These best fish collagens on the market also rós taste – Cacao Bloom is a treat for chocolate lovers. Rise&Shine will appeal to those whoólike the refreshing taste of mangoófruit and passion fruit.

Pros and cons

Fish collagen from the Natu.Care brand in a dose of 5000 mg, based on certified ingredients of the best quality. Regular supplementation will positively influence the appearance of the skinóry, hairów and nails – they will be rebuilt and strengthened from the inside.

In addition to collagen, which is valuable for health and beauty, it also offers other active ingredients that help to maintain a youthful complexion, shiny hair and strong nails.

The formula contains a sufficient portion of the active ingredient to positively affect joints, the musculoskeletal system and immunity.

Natu.Care Premium Collagen is available in two flavours – Cacao Bloom and Rise&Shine. Both formulas are based on the following active ingredients: marine collagen hydrolysate, wild roseóbud extract and hyaluronic acid.

Additionally, Cacao Bloom contains natural L-theanine, coenzyme Q10 and defatted Dutch cacao. Rise&Shine instead contains vitamin E and vitamin A.

These are the best collagens in the world.

These best fish collagens on the market also rós taste – Cacao Bloom is a treat for chocolate lovers. Rise&Shine will appeal to those whoólike the refreshing taste of mangoófruit and passion fruit.

Additional information

Fish collagen from the Natu.Care brand in a dose of 5000 mg, based on certified ingredients of the best quality. Regular supplementation will positively influence the appearance of the skinóry, hairów and nails – they will be rebuilt and strengthened from the inside.

In addition to collagen, which is valuable for health and beauty, it also offers other active ingredients that help to maintain a youthful complexion, shiny hair and strong nails.

The formula contains a sufficient portion of the active ingredient to positively affect joints, the musculoskeletal system and immunity.

Natu.Care Premium Collagen is available in two flavours – Cacao Bloom and Rise&Shine. Both formulas are based on the following active ingredients: marine collagen hydrolysate, wild roseóbud extract and hyaluronic acid.

Additionally, Cacao Bloom contains natural L-theanine, coenzyme Q10 and defatted Dutch cacao. Rise&Shine instead contains vitamin E and vitamin A.

These are the best collagens in the world.

These best fish collagens on the market also rós taste – Cacao Bloom is a treat for chocolate lovers. Rise&Shine will appeal to those whoólike the refreshing taste of mangoófruit and passion fruit.

User review

Fish collagen from the Natu.Care brand in a dose of 5000 mg, based on certified ingredients of the best quality. Regular supplementation will positively influence the appearance of the skinóry, hairów and nails – they will be rebuilt and strengthened from the inside.

In addition to collagen, which is valuable for health and beauty, it also offers other active ingredients that help to maintain a youthful complexion, shiny hair and strong nails.

The formula contains a sufficient portion of the active ingredient to positively affect joints, the musculoskeletal system and immunity.

Natu.Care Premium Collagen is available in two flavours – Cacao Bloom and Rise&Shine. Both formulas are based on the following active ingredients: marine collagen hydrolysate, wild roseóbud extract and hyaluronic acid.

Additionally, Cacao Bloom contains natural L-theanine, coenzyme Q10 and defatted Dutch cacao. Rise&Shine instead contains vitamin E and vitamin A.

These are the best collagens in the world.

These best fish collagens on the market also rós taste – Cacao Bloom is a treat for chocolate lovers. Rise&Shine will appeal to those whoólike the refreshing taste of mangoófruit and passion fruit.

Refreshing taste

Natu.Care Collagen 3000 mg, various flavours

Natu.Care Collagen 3000 mg, various flavours
4.7
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Dietary supplement in a highly bioavailable form of hydrolysed collagen SeaGarden fish®. This formula has high bioavailability– youróbody will use collagen faster and more efficiently where you need it most. 

A 3,000 mg serving of collagen benefits your hair, skinóhand and nails, as well as the functioning of your jointsómuscles and bones. The action of collagen is complemented by vitamin C, whichóra supports the natural production of the youth protein in the body and also helps with its absorption. It is also a great anti-ageing antioxidant.

Natu.Care's Collagen 3000 mg is available in three fruit flavours (orange, raspberry-cranberry, blackcurrant) and a flavourless variant. The powder dissolves very well, does not form lumps in the liquid and you can add it to your favourite yoghurt, oatmeal or smoothie.

Pros and cons

Dietary supplement in a highly bioavailable form of hydrolysed collagen SeaGarden fish®. This formula has high bioavailability– youróbody will use collagen faster and more efficiently where you need it most. 

A 3,000 mg serving of collagen benefits your hair, skinóhand and nails, as well as the functioning of your jointsómuscles and bones. The action of collagen is complemented by vitamin C, whichóra supports the natural production of the youth protein in the body and also helps with its absorption. It is also a great anti-ageing antioxidant.

Natu.Care's Collagen 3000 mg is available in three fruit flavours (orange, raspberry-cranberry, blackcurrant) and a flavourless variant. The powder dissolves very well, does not form lumps in the liquid and you can add it to your favourite yoghurt, oatmeal or smoothie.

Additional information

Dietary supplement in a highly bioavailable form of hydrolysed collagen SeaGarden fish®. This formula has high bioavailability– youróbody will use collagen faster and more efficiently where you need it most. 

A 3,000 mg serving of collagen benefits your hair, skinóhand and nails, as well as the functioning of your jointsómuscles and bones. The action of collagen is complemented by vitamin C, whichóra supports the natural production of the youth protein in the body and also helps with its absorption. It is also a great anti-ageing antioxidant.

Natu.Care's Collagen 3000 mg is available in three fruit flavours (orange, raspberry-cranberry, blackcurrant) and a flavourless variant. The powder dissolves very well, does not form lumps in the liquid and you can add it to your favourite yoghurt, oatmeal or smoothie.

Pure collagen

Natu.Care Collagen 3000 mg, tasteless

Natu.Care Collagen 3000 mg, tasteless
4.6
  • Collagen content: 3000 mg collagen hydrolysate fish
  • Additional active ingredients: none
  • .
  • Form: powder
  • .
  • Dose: one scoop per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement contains only pure fish collagen in the formula SeaGarden®. This Norwegian collagen is characterised by its purity and high bioavailability, which means that youróy body will utilise the collagen faster and more effectively.

Regular supplementation fish collagen benefits hair, skinóhand and nails and supports joints, muscles and bones. It improves the appearance of the skinóry and slows down its ageing, giving it a healthy glow.

Natu.Care Collagen 3000 mg has a neutral taste, dissolves well, does not form lumps in liquid and you can add it to your drink, yoghurt or smoothie.

Pros and cons

The dietary supplement contains only pure fish collagen in the formula SeaGarden®. This Norwegian collagen is characterised by its purity and high bioavailability, which means that youróy body will utilise the collagen faster and more effectively.

Regular supplementation fish collagen benefits hair, skinóhand and nails and supports joints, muscles and bones. It improves the appearance of the skinóry and slows down its ageing, giving it a healthy glow.

Natu.Care Collagen 3000 mg has a neutral taste, dissolves well, does not form lumps in liquid and you can add it to your drink, yoghurt or smoothie.

Additional information

The dietary supplement contains only pure fish collagen in the formula SeaGarden®. This Norwegian collagen is characterised by its purity and high bioavailability, which means that youróy body will utilise the collagen faster and more effectively.

Regular supplementation fish collagen benefits hair, skinóhand and nails and supports joints, muscles and bones. It improves the appearance of the skinóry and slows down its ageing, giving it a healthy glow.

Natu.Care Collagen 3000 mg has a neutral taste, dissolves well, does not form lumps in liquid and you can add it to your drink, yoghurt or smoothie.

Aura Herbals Colladrop Forte

Aura Herbals Colladrop Forte
4.5
  • Collagen content: 10,000 mg sea collagen
  • Additional active ingredients: vitamin C and coenzyme Q10
  • Form: sachets of powder
  • .
  • Dosage: one sachet per day
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

A dietary supplement containing fish collagen for drinking in a high dose of 10,000 mg hydrolysate. It also offers you additional health and beauty benefits thanks to its coenzyme Q10 and vitamin C content. Supplementation with collagen can improve the appearance of your skinóskin, hairónails and improve the function of your jointsómuscles and bones.

Pros and cons

A dietary supplement containing fish collagen for drinking in a high dose of 10,000 mg hydrolysate. It also offers you additional health and beauty benefits thanks to its coenzyme Q10 and vitamin C content. Supplementation with collagen can improve the appearance of your skinóskin, hairónails and improve the function of your jointsómuscles and bones.

Additional information

A dietary supplement containing fish collagen for drinking in a high dose of 10,000 mg hydrolysate. It also offers you additional health and beauty benefits thanks to its coenzyme Q10 and vitamin C content. Supplementation with collagen can improve the appearance of your skinóskin, hairónails and improve the function of your jointsómuscles and bones.

Best shot

Primabiotic Collagen

Primabiotic Collagen
4.4
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

Collagen enriched with a vitamin complex, in the form of convenient fruit-flavoured shotsós. The dietary supplement has rejuvenating properties. It will make your skin elastic, smoother and stronger. You will also see the positive effects of collagen on your hair and nails.

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Regular supplementation will improve jointómuscle function and strengthen bones. 

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Pros and cons

Collagen enriched with a vitamin complex, in the form of convenient fruit-flavoured shotsós. The dietary supplement has rejuvenating properties. It will make your skin elastic, smoother and stronger. You will also see the positive effects of collagen on your hair and nails.

.

Regular supplementation will improve jointómuscle function and strengthen bones. 

.
Additional information

Collagen enriched with a vitamin complex, in the form of convenient fruit-flavoured shotsós. The dietary supplement has rejuvenating properties. It will make your skin elastic, smoother and stronger. You will also see the positive effects of collagen on your hair and nails.

.

Regular supplementation will improve jointómuscle function and strengthen bones. 

.
User review

Collagen enriched with a vitamin complex, in the form of convenient fruit-flavoured shotsós. The dietary supplement has rejuvenating properties. It will make your skin elastic, smoother and stronger. You will also see the positive effects of collagen on your hair and nails.

.

Regular supplementation will improve jointómuscle function and strengthen bones. 

.

SOLVE LABS Collagen Peptides

SOLVE LABS Collagen Peptides
4.2
  • Collagen content: 6000 mg hydrolyzed beef collagen type I and III COLLinstant®
  • .
  • Additional active ingredients: hyaluronic acid
  • Form: powder
  • .
  • Dose: one scoop (6 g) daily
  • .
  • Sufficient for: 30 days
  • .
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

High-quality hydrolysate of bovine collagen (types I and III). Thanks to the COLLinstant® collagen peptide extraction technology, the preparation is well absorbed. 

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The combination of collagen and hyaluronic acid has a beneficial effect on the appearance of your skinóry. Your complexion will become firmer, moisturised and wrinkles will become shallower. The effects can also be felt on your hair: it becomes soft and shiny. The nail plate will regain its healthy appearance.

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A daily serving will support the health of your jointsós, bones and muscles.

Pros and cons

High-quality hydrolysate of bovine collagen (types I and III). Thanks to the COLLinstant® collagen peptide extraction technology, the preparation is well absorbed. 

.

The combination of collagen and hyaluronic acid has a beneficial effect on the appearance of your skinóry. Your complexion will become firmer, moisturised and wrinkles will become shallower. The effects can also be felt on your hair: it becomes soft and shiny. The nail plate will regain its healthy appearance.

.

A daily serving will support the health of your jointsós, bones and muscles.

Additional information

High-quality hydrolysate of bovine collagen (types I and III). Thanks to the COLLinstant® collagen peptide extraction technology, the preparation is well absorbed. 

.

The combination of collagen and hyaluronic acid has a beneficial effect on the appearance of your skinóry. Your complexion will become firmer, moisturised and wrinkles will become shallower. The effects can also be felt on your hair: it becomes soft and shiny. The nail plate will regain its healthy appearance.

.

A daily serving will support the health of your jointsós, bones and muscles.

User review

High-quality hydrolysate of bovine collagen (types I and III). Thanks to the COLLinstant® collagen peptide extraction technology, the preparation is well absorbed. 

.

The combination of collagen and hyaluronic acid has a beneficial effect on the appearance of your skinóry. Your complexion will become firmer, moisturised and wrinkles will become shallower. The effects can also be felt on your hair: it becomes soft and shiny. The nail plate will regain its healthy appearance.

.

A daily serving will support the health of your jointsós, bones and muscles.

 

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Collagen Reme

Collagen Reme
4.0
See price
in the Natu.Care shop
Product description

The dietary supplement from Remé contains beef collagen in the patented VERISOL formula and vitamin C, whichóra aids its absorption. The formula comes in three flavours: neutral, orange-maracuja and strawberry-pomegranate. The formula can effectively support and improve the condition of the skin hair and nails. It is also 

.
Pros and cons

The dietary supplement from Remé contains beef collagen in the patented VERISOL formula and vitamin C, whichóra aids its absorption. The formula comes in three flavours: neutral, orange-maracuja and strawberry-pomegranate. The formula can effectively support and improve the condition of the skin hair and nails. It is also 

.
Additional information

The dietary supplement from Remé contains beef collagen in the patented VERISOL formula and vitamin C, whichóra aids its absorption. The formula comes in three flavours: neutral, orange-maracuja and strawberry-pomegranate. The formula can effectively support and improve the condition of the skin hair and nails. It is also 

.
 

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See also:

.

How to dose proline?

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The dosage of proline depends on various factors such as health, age, lifestyle and diet. Typically, safe and effective doses of this amino acid range from 500 mg to 1,000 mg per day.

Remember, however, that there are no clearly established dosages for proline supplementation, so it is always advisable to consult a doctor or nutritionist who will be able to tailor the dosage to your individual needs and health status.

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Supplementation of the diet with amino acids while trying to have a baby can help alleviate reproductive disorders and thus improve fertility. Proline plays an important role in regulating gene expression, protein synthesis and angiogenesis during pregnancy. However, this should always be consulted with your healthcare provider.
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Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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Proline contraindications

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Proline occurs naturally in the body, so most often its supplementation is safe and not associated with contraindications. Nevertheless, it is worth being careful and checking whether the following restrictions apply to you:

  • Kidney disease. People with kidney disease should be particularly careful with proline supplementation, as excess amino acids can stress the kidneys.
  • The following restrictions apply to proline supplementation.
  • Diseases liver. As with kidney disease, people with liver problems should consult their doctor before starting proline supplementation.
  • Metabolic disorders. Some metabolic disorders can cause problems with metabolising proline. People with such problems should avoid supplementation.
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Proline can be 'fuel' for pathogenic microorganisms such as: Helicobacter pyloriStaphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The extra supply of proline can fuel the disease because the bacteria will have energy to act. This is important because Helicobacter pylori, or Staphylococcus aureus are quite common pathogens.
Ilona Krzak.

Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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See also:

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Proline and L-proline - side effects

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While proline occurs naturally in many foods and is safe for most people, its excessive supplementation can lead to some side effects. Possible side effects include:

  • Kidney problems. An excess of proline can stress the kidneys, leading to problems with kidney function.
    • Proline is not a good supplement.
    • Gastrointestinal disorders. Some people may experience gastrointestinal problems such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea while taking proline supplements.
    • Hypoglycaemia. Proline can lower blood sugar levels, leading to anxiety, sweating, tremors, dizziness and reduced appetite.

    Expert opinions on proline: a doctor, a pharmacist and a clinical nutritionist

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    Proline supports the immune system response by promoting the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, increasing T-cell activity and reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
    Julia Skrajda.

    Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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    Proline together with hydroxyproline is the main structural component of the collagen helix. Without it, collagen production would not be possible in the body. Proline is an endogenous amino acid (the body produces it itself), so supplementation is usually unnecessary.
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    Dr Witold Tomaszewski.

    Witold Tomaszewskidoctor of medical sciences

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    Proline is synthesised in the body. It is a component of collagen - it helps build it, just as glycine is an essential building block of tissues such as ligaments, tendons, cartilage or muscles. Proline has particular properties in relation to wound healing and the appearance of the skin - it promotes resilience, elasticity and luminosity of the complexion.
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    Julia Skrajda.

    Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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    Proline, together with other amino acids, regulates metabolic pathways to promote health, growth and development, as well as lactation. Furthermore, proline helps to maintain the normal function of the nervous system.
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    Ilona Krzak.

    Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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    Because of their beneficial properties, many people choose to supplement glycine and proline separately, but it is worth noting that their effects are sort of indirect - collagen is responsible for everything, which supports just these amino acids. Therefore, the best solution if you want to support, for example, skin, hair, joints or nails, is to supplement with collagen rather than individual amino acids.
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    Julia Skrajda.

    Julia SkrajdaDietitian

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    In in vitro studies, proline has an antioxidant effect and protects against the negative effects of free radicals.
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    Ilona Krzak.

    Ilona Krzak Master of Pharmacy

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    See also:

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    Summary

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    • Proline is an endogenous protein amino acid.
    • .
    • There are two forms of proline: L-proline and D-proline, of which it is the former that is biologically active.
    • Proline is an amino acid.
    • Proline, among other things, supports protein structure, collagen production and the wound healing process.
    • .
    • Proline applications include, among others, dietary supplements and cosmetics.
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    • Proline in food is found primarily in meat, fish and dairy products.
    • .
    • Proline deficiency is rare and does not have specific symptoms.
    • Proline deficiency is rare.
    • An excess of proline can be caused by metabolic disorders.
    • .
    • There is no specific dosage of proline.
    • .
    • Contraindications to the use of proline include kidney disease, liver disease and metabolic disorders.
    • Side effects of L-proline and proline include, for example, kidney problems, gastrointestinal disorders and hypoglycaemia.
    • Side effects of L-proline and proline include, for example, kidney problems, gastrointestinal disorders and hypoglycaemia.
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    FAQ

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    . What is proline responsible for?.

    Proline plays a key role in shaping the structure of proteins. Due to its unique structure, it is mainly responsible for the formation of loops and protein turns, which has a direct impact on the shape and function of the overall protein molecule.

    . Where is proline found?.

    Proline is one of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids that are the building blocks of proteins. It is present in living organisms; it can be found in the proteins of plants, animals and humans. Proline helps form protein structures and is important for maintaining the integrity of collagen, a key protein for skin, bones, tendons and joints.

    Proline is not localised to one specific site - it is widespread throughout the body in protein structures.

    . How much proline to take daily?.

    There is no universal recommended daily dose of proline. A suitable dose seems to be 500-1000 mg of proline per day. But it is always a good idea to consult your doctor or nutritionist before starting any supplementation to determine what dose will be safest and most effective for you.

    . What does it mean proline?.

    Proline is the English name for proline, an endogenous amino acid protein that is responsible for producing proteins and collagen in the body, as well as promoting wound healing.

    . What are the side effects of taking proline?.

    Proline is an amino acid that is naturally produced by the body, so it is generally safe to consume. Nevertheless, taking proline, as with all dietary supplements, can potentially lead to side effects, especially when taken in large quantities.

    Potential side effects may include:

    • Gastrointestinal problems such as nausea, abdominal pain or diarrhoea.
    • Increased burden on the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Increased burden on the kidneys and liver due to the need to process the extra amino acid.
    • Possible imbalance of other amino acids in the body.
    • .
    . Is proline an endogenous amino acid?.

    Yes, proline is an endogenous amino acid. Endogenous amino acids are those that your body can produce on its own, so you don't necessarily need to provide them with food.

    . What formula does proline have?.

    Proline has the chemical formula C5H9NO2. Its uniqueness is due to the fact that it is the only amino acid whose side chain forms a ring by bonding directly to the nitrogen atom of the amino group. It thus forms a five-membered cyclic system of four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom.

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    Sources

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    Christgen, S. L., & Becker, D. F. (2019). Role of Proline in Pathogen and Host Interactions. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling30(4), 683-709. https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2017.7335

    Doerfel, L. K., Wohlgemuth, I., Kothe, C., Peske, F., Urlaub, H., & Rodnina, M. V. (2013). EF-P Is Essential for Rapid Synthesis of Proteins Containing Consecutive Proline Residues. Science339(6115), 85-88. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1229017

    Guo, S., & DiPietro, L. A. (2010). Factors Affecting Wound Healing. Journal of Dental Research89(3), 219-229. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034509359125

    Hayat, S., Hayat, Q., Alyemeni, M. N., Wani, A. S., Pichtel, J., & Ahmad, A. (2012a). Role of proline under changing environments. Plant Signaling & Behavior7(11), 1456-1466. https://doi.org/10.4161/psb.21949

    Karami, Z., & Akbari-adergani, B. (2019). Bioactive food derived peptides: A review on correlation between structure of bioactive peptides and their functional properties. Journal of Food Science and Technology56(2), 535-547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3549-4

    Lachman, A. (2014). New developments in diagnosis and treatment update: Schizophrenia/first episode psychosis in children and adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health26(2), 109-124. https://doi.org/10.2989/17280583.2014.924416

    Mathis, D., Beese, K., Rüegg, C., Plecko, B., & Hersberger, M. (2020). LC-MS / MS method for the differential diagnosis of treatable early onset inherited metabolic epilepsies. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease43(5), 1102-1111. https://doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12244

    Mayneris-Perxachs, J., Castells-Nobau, A., Arnoriaga-Rodríguez, M., Martin, M., de la Vega-Correa, L., Zapata, C., Burokas, A., Blasco, G., Coll, C., Escrichs, A., Biarnés, C., Moreno-Navarrete, J. M., Puig, J., Garre-Olmo, J., Ramos, R., Pedraza, S., Brugada, R., Vilanova, J. C., Serena, J., ... Fernández-Real, J. M. (2022). Microbiota alterations in proline metabolism impact depression. Cell Metabolism34(5), 681-701.e10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2022.04.001

    Mobasheri, A., Mahmoudian, A., Kalvaityte, U., Uzieliene, I., Larder, C. E., Iskandar, M. M., Kubow, S., Hamdan, P. C., de Almeida, C. S., Favazzo, L. J., van Loon, L. J. C., Emans, P. J., Plapler, P. G., & Zuscik, M. J. (2021). A White Paper on Collagen Hydrolyzates and Ultrahydrolyzates: Potential Supplements to Support Joint Health in Osteoarthritis? Current Rheumatology Reports23(11), 78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11926-021-01042-6

    Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Collagen Hydrolysate Enhances Postprandial Absorption Rate-A Randomized Controlled Trial. (n.d.). Retrieved 17 July 2023, from https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/5/1064

    Phang, J. M., Liu, W., & Zabirnyk, O. (2010). Proline Metabolism and Microenvironmental Stress. Annual Review of Nutrition30(1), 441-463. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.012809.104638

    Teymoori, F., Asghari, G., Farhadnejad, H., Nazarzadeh, M., Atifeh, M., Mirmiran, P., & Azizi, F. (2020). Various proline food sources and blood pressure: Substitution analysis. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition71(3), 332-340. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2019.1650004

    Verslues, P. E., & Sharma, S. (2010). Proline Metabolism and Its Implications for Plant-Environment Interaction. The Arabidopsis Book2010(8). https://doi.org/10.1199/tab.0140

    Wu, G., Bazer, F. W., Burghardt, R. C., Johnson, G. A., Kim, S. W., Knabe, D. A., Li, P., Li, X., McKnight, J. R., Satterfield, M. C., & Spencer, T. E. (2011). Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: Implications for animal and human nutrition. Amino Acids40(4), 1053-1063. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-010-0715-z

    Wu, G., Bazer, F. W., Davis, T. A., Kim, S. W., Li, P., Marc Rhoads, J., Carey Satterfield, M., Smith, S. B., Spencer, T. E., & Yin, Y. (2009). Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease. Amino Acids37(1), 153-168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-008-0210-y

    Jelonek, L. (2023). Collagen. Everything you need to know (B. Turczynski, ed.; 1st ed.). Natu.Care. https://books.google.com/books?vid=9788396887801

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Editorials

Meet the team
Ludwig Jelonek - Author

Natu.Care Editor

Ludwik Jelonek is the author of more than 2,500 texts published on leading portals. His content has found its way into services such as Ostrovit and Kobieta Onet. At Natu.Care, Ludwik educates people in the most important area of life - health.

Ilona Bush - Reviewed by

Master of Pharmacy

Verified by an expert

Ilona Krzak obtained her Master of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of Wrocław. She did her internship in a hospital pharmacy and in the pharmaceutical industry. She is currently working in the profession and also runs an educational profile on Instagram: @pani_z_apteki

Bartholomew Turczynski - Edited by

Editor-in-Chief

Bartłomiej Turczyński is the editor-in-chief of Natu.Care. He is responsible for the quality of the content created on Natu.Care, among others, and ensures that all articles are based on sound scientific research and consulted with industry specialists.

Emilia Moskal - Fact-checking

Natu.Care Editor

Emilia Moskal specialises in medical and psychological texts, including content for medical entities. She is a fan of simple language and reader-friendly communication. At Natu.Care, she writes educational articles.

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